Republic of Iran in the context of sexual and reproductive health. Similarly, there . Mohammadi MR, Mohammad K, Farahani FKA, Alikhani S. Zare, Tehrani, FR,. A few pages later, having begun an affair with a progressive Tehrani of the memoir “The Good Daughter,” recreates her sexual and creative. View the profiles of people named Sex Tehrani. Join Facebook to connect with Sex Tehrani and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to.
Background: Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth's health in terms of sexually Premarital Sex Behavior Qualitative Research Iran .. Simbar M, Ramezani Tehrani F, Hashemi M. The reproductive health needs of the university. A few pages later, having begun an affair with a progressive Tehrani of the memoir “The Good Daughter,” recreates her sexual and creative. Republic of Iran in the context of sexual and reproductive health. Similarly, there . Mohammadi MR, Mohammad K, Farahani FKA, Alikhani S. Zare, Tehrani, FR,.
Abstract. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent and potential correlates of sexual risk-taking behaviors among adolescent boys aged. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners. Iranian EFL Learners. Shohreh Shahpouri Arani, Narges Soltani Tehrani. Mohammad, K; Farahani, FKA; Mohammadi, MR; Alikhani, S; Zare, M; Tehrani, FR; Ramezankhani, A; Hasanzadeh, A; Ghanbari, H; () Sexual risk-taking.
Ballantine Books. She acts on her own desires. Tehran is scandalized. To say that we, too, have tehrani right to breathe, to tehrani zex and to sing. At once loved and hated, she was a literary sensation and an acclaimed filmmaker, who demanded sex female sex, expressed in plain language, sex given the weight of serious literature. Sex poets had been writing breathlessly about women for centuries — why should the reverse be any less palatable? Her version is superbly dramatized and, with its cast of spineless lovers and hymen-breaking villainesses, a very Iranian tale, every scene tehrani to stir up fury sex longing.
Yet Darznik has composed her novel for Western ears, in elegantly simple language. And here is a larger problem of poetic translation: How do you capture a language as floral and breathy as Farsi without access to its unique sounds? Tehrani to replace these lost sounds, and to remind us that these tehrani are happening sex away, Darznik peppers her novel with everyday Farsi words.
We saw the future in neon lights seex. They still sex about Farrokhzad. I loved them; I belonged to them. Iranians Loved and Hated Her tehrani It.
To achieve maximum variation in the data, informants were selected from different age groups, different socioeconomic status, high and low religiosity, and sexual experience levels.
Also they had varying education levels. Most were living in dormitories and a few were living with their families at the time of interviews. In total, five focus group discussions were held and ten participants were interviewed individually.
Data saturation was achieved after four focus group discussions and eight individual interviews; in fact, no new data were collected from the last two individual interviews and the last FGD. In this approach the most suitable unit of analysis is whole interviews or observational protocols Data analysis commenced during the data collection.
Each focus group discussion and individual interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed before the next focus group discussion or interview. We achieved data comprehension thorough reading and re-reading.
In the next step, the units of meaning were extracted from the statements. Data analysis was performed using line-by-line coding, and codes were created during repeated discussions between researchers.
Themes emerged based on the codes with similar meanings. There was a second coder involved in the study, who was an expert in qualitative methods. We asked five of our participants to review the summary of the interviews and the findings member check ; these participants were chosen during the first FGDs and interviews. For confirmability of the findings, the substantive codes and themes were checked with four individuals, who were familiar with qualitative methods of content analysis peer check Maximum variation sampling enhanced the transferability of data Multiple data collection methods focus group discussion and individual interview were used to enhance dependability and credibility of the data Approval to conduct the study was granted from the ethics committee of the school of medicine of the Tarbiat Modares University in All participants were given pseudonyms and were informed that participation in the study was voluntary, they could withdraw at any time, their confidentiality would be maintained, and none of the participants would be identified in any publications derived from the study.
Informed written consent was obtained from the participants prior to focus group discussions and interviews. Participants reported that they experienced a sense of guilt during their first sexual encounters. Also, most of them reported a sense of duality because they were doing something that opposed social norms, and in some cases opposed their own beliefs.
After time progression, they felt more comfortable to engage in sexual relationships. In fact, they could accept the sexual contact as an inseparable part of their relationship, as some of the participants stated that they, themselves, welcomed sexual relationships. Sepideh, 21 years old, whose parents had talked to her about making a decision regarding premarital sexual relationships, reported that:.
After that, I experienced sexual relationships and enjoyed it. Now, I think about why I should delete this enjoyable act from my life? If I love someone, I prefer to have sexual relationship with them and I have accepted sexual contact as part of my relationship.
Most of the young women who had premarital sexual experiences believed that sexuality is a natural phenomenon and is a need that is required to be met. Thus, they experienced premarital sexual relationships more freely.
This group of participants believed that it is ridiculous to abstain from sexual behaviors before marriage. They also stated that women could enjoy premarital sexual relationships as much as men and it is a mutual pleasure. Yasna, a 28 year-old woman, stated that:. Why do you eat an orange?
You eat the orange because God has created it for you to eat. This is also true for premarital sexual relationships; God has created sexual relationships for you to experience and it is not important whether you experience it inside or outside of a marriage. Some of the young women believed that sexual relationships could keep their boyfriends in the relationship and encourage them to get married. In fact, these young women considered premarital sexual relationships as a trap for marriage.
They believed that if emotional and sexual relationships are well established, their boyfriends will also love them and would want to experience sexual relationships only with them.
Sahar, 25 years old, stated that:. In that relationship, my boyfriend left me. I thought if I had allowed us to engage in sexual relationships, I would be able to keep him in the relationship and convince him to get married.
Now, I believe that I am not a bad girl and when God sends me an appropriate boy, he does not mind if I hug or kiss him. These behaviors could involve his emotions and feelings as well as mine. Some participants believed that experiencing premarital sexual relationships is not an obstacle for them to have a successful marriage. Sima, 31 years old, stated that:. I think this belief is wrong. I have seen several women who had premarital sexual relationships and had a successful marriage afterward.
Some participants questioned the importance of virginity and stated that it is an old fashioned phenomenon because they believed virginity is not equal to female chastity. On one hand, a woman could experience different types of premarital sexual behaviors, other than vaginal, while she keeps her hymen intact.
In addition, some of the participants believed that they do not need to ask other people, such as family or community members, about keeping their virginity, because they believed the decision about keeping their virginity is a personal right.
This viewpoint was observed not only among the participants but also among some families who allowed their daughters to experience any type of sexual behaviors. They had explained to their daughters that keeping virginity was not important for them.
Shima, 30 years old, stated that:. Some participants believed that premarital sexual relationships could be a way to reach perfection, relaxation and increased self-confidence. They reported that, occasionally, they preferred to experience sexual relationships in order to become relaxed after a mental fatigue or stressful event. In fact, the sexual relationship for these young women was a means to feel more comfortable and become relaxed.
They believed that these occasional sexual relations could not satisfy them and they looked for a meaningful sexual relationship to gain perfection. Soraya, 28 years old, reported that:. In fact, when I communicate with my boyfriend and engage in sexual behaviors, I look for perfection, not merely sexual satisfaction.
I mean I feel more confident and relaxed when I experience sexual relationships. In fact some participants felt that a relation without sexual contact is not complete, and the sexuality part is what makes a relation worthwhile and whole. Most of the participants who experienced premarital sexual relationships stated that they loved their boyfriends and they got involved in sexual behaviors because of their emotions.
They stated that when you love someone, you like to touch his body and physical intimacy is a means of expressing your feelings. Although, premarital sexual relationship is not acceptable in the Iranian culture because of social and religious reasons, some participants believed that when two individuals fall in love and cannot live separately, there is no limitation for them to experience intimate relationships.
Susan, 19 years old, stated that:. Most participants reported that they usually engaged in an opposite-sex relationship if a number of criteria were met, e. They defined goal-oriented relationships as long-term relationships or mutual intentions to get married. The purpose of the relationship, especially the intention to get married in the future, was a powerful motivation for them to engage in sexual behaviors because they thought sexual relationships could also help them know more about their boyfriend.
They stated that they could evaluate if they are suitable cases for each other regarding marriage. Soheila, 25 years old, stated that:. The results of this study demonstrated that some beliefs could play an important role in motivating young women to engage in premarital sexual behaviors. Our study has provided a large amount of motivating and permissive beliefs regarding premarital sexual relationships.
In international studies, personal beliefs and attitudes are well documented as the strongest factors for premarital and risky sexual behaviors. Young people who have permissive attitudes toward premarital sexual activity are more likely to engage in premarital sexual behaviors more frequently and have more sexual partners. All of these beliefs, attitudes, and motivations can be considered as proximal factors because they are closely linked to risky and protective sexual behaviors and they influence those behaviors directly 11 , 23 - For example, having sex and using condoms may affect attitudes about having sex, perceptions of peer norms about sex, and perceived ability to use condoms.
Thus, causality may operate in both directions Studies have demonstrated that if people have a virginity pledge, they are less likely to engage in premarital sexual relationships Commitment to virginity is a predominant attitude and important in the Iranian culture, that is why our participants frequently discussed it. Something interesting in our study was that there was a certain sanctity attached to virginity; in fact, young women preferred to experience non-vaginal sexual behaviors, as if the hymen had a certain dignity for them.
It seems that the importance of physical virginity for the Iranian society has caused an infusion of holiness to virginity and abstinence from vaginal sex, despite experiencing other types of sexual behaviors. In the FGDs, participants frequently repeated that the importance of virginity has decreased, yet deep interviews with young women who experienced premarital sexual behaviors demonstrated that keeping virginity was still important.
In fact, they did not believe that keeping virginity was worthwhile yet they tried to keep their hymen intact, despite experiencing non-vaginal sexual behaviors. Perhaps the type of importance has changed, as most young women who believed that keeping virginity is not a valuable thing were not willing to risk and lose their virginity.
In fact, these young women had a sexual performance according to their sexual schema, which was formed by their family and society. A qualitative study on Iranian young women showed that among the majority of young women who experienced premarital sexual behaviors, only a small fraction of these relationships had resulted in penetrative sex.
In fact, they remained virgin to improve their opportunities for marriage. Although these young women might engage in more premarital heterosexual relations than other women, they may abstain from sex until marriage. These females might be better informed than their peers of the negative consequences of sex for their marriage prospects because of their better communication and closer relationships with their parents 2. Results of this study could be applied for designing interventions, such as enhancing preventive beliefs or providing education regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies.
The current study had some limitations. Topics related to sexuality, such as premarital sexual relationship, are relatively personal and private, and are influenced by varying degrees of social, religious, moral, and legal norms and constraints.
Thus, some people preferred not to speak about their sexual life, especially their sexual experiences. Male poets had been writing breathlessly about women for centuries — why should the reverse be any less palatable?
Her version is superbly dramatized and, with its cast of spineless lovers and hymen-breaking villainesses, a very Iranian tale, every scene designed to stir up fury or longing. Yet Darznik has composed her novel for Western ears, in elegantly simple language.
And here is a larger problem of poetic translation: How do you capture a language as floral and breathy as Farsi without access to its unique sounds? Perhaps to replace these lost sounds, and to remind us that these events are happening far away, Darznik peppers her novel with everyday Farsi words.
We saw the future in neon lights …. They still argue about Farrokhzad.