college males were unobtrusively observed buying "girlie" magazines. It was hypothesized that the buying of such magazines would be accompanied by. There are two necessary components of any motivated behavior: (i) the incentive properties of an external. Persistent inflammatory pain alters sexually-motivated behavior in male rats. Pitcher MH(1), Tarum F(2), Lehmann M(3), Bushnell MC(2).
how novel stimulation affects sexual motivation; and why measured sex- . perhaps all behavior can be said to be sexually motivated. Animals and humans. Persistent inflammatory pain alters sexually-motivated behavior in male rats. Pitcher MH(1), Tarum F(2), Lehmann M(3), Bushnell MC(2). Summary One hundred and thirty college males were unobtrusively observed buying “girlie” magazines. It was hypothesized that the buying of.
There are two necessary components of any motivated behavior: (i) the incentive properties of an external. college males were unobtrusively observed buying "girlie" magazines. It was hypothesized that the buying of such magazines would be accompanied by. By combining these two definitions and applying them to human sexual behavior we could say that sexual motivation is an inferred, internal state influenced by.
Methamphetamine METH is a psychomotor stimulant that is reported to enhance sexual desire and behavior in both men and women, leading to increases in unplanned pregnancies, sexually-transmitted infections, and even comorbid psychiatric conditions. Here, we discuss our rodent model of increased sexually-motivated behaviors in which the co-administration of METH and the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone, intensify the incentive properties of a sexual stimulus and increases measures of sexually-motivated behavior motivated the presence of an androgen-specific cue.
We then present the neurobiological mechanisms by which this heightened motivational salience is mediated by the actions of METH and ovarian hormones, particularly progestins, in the posterodorsal medial nucleus of the amygdala MePDa key integration site for sexually-relevant sensory information with generalized arousal. We finally demonstrate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this facilitation of sexual motivation by METH, including the sexually, increased phosphorylation, and activation of progestin receptors PRs in the MePD by METH in the presence of ovarian hormones.
Taken together, this work extends our understanding of the neurobiology of female sexual motivation. Sexual behaviors are a complex, coordinated suite of actions that arise from the integration of psychological and physiological processes with external elements. One key component of sexual behaviors is that of sexual motivation, a hypothetical, internal willingness to engage in sexual behaviors Holder and Mong, Although research into female sexual motivation is an active and growing field, relatively little is understood about the neurobiological origins of sexual motivation in women.
Many of these mechanistic questions cannot be currently answered in women, so rat models are most frequently used to study sexual motivation and behavior Pfaus et al. In this review article, we discuss the modulators of female sexual motivation, using the concept of incentive motivation as a foundational working model. Next, we summarize what is known in sexually to the neurobiology of female sexual motivation in rats. We then describe our methamphetamine METH model of increased sexually-motivated behaviors in female rats.
We finally detail insights into the neurobiology and mechanisms of enhanced female sexual motivation gained using this model. The female rats show a wide range of specific sexual behaviors that are displayed in the presence of a male rat. Following anogenital investigations, the female will typically engage in approach and solicitation behaviors, which serve to initiate sexual contact with a male McClintock and Adler, ; Erskine, ; Pfaus et al.
The female approaches the male with a head-wise orientation then quickly runs away Pfaus et al. Hopping is distinct from general locomotion as it is a rapid, stiff-legged upward jump, followed by a bow-shaped return to the floor, and ends in a behavior. Darting is a specialized form of a runaway from the male in which the female accelerates swiftly, using rapid low steps with the body held near the floor Hemmingsen, ; Behavior, Upon a successful mount by the male, the female rat displays a behavioral reflex known as lordosis, in which the female arches her back, elevates her head and rump, and deflects her tail to one side reviewed in Erskine, In arenas sexually allow for separation between the male and female rat, such as a paced mating arena with escape chamber s or bilevel chambers, the female rat controls the tempo and occurrence of the sexual behaviors McClintock and Adler, ; Erskine and Baum, ; Erskine, ; Pfaus et al.
If female rats are given the opportunity to choose between two males, they display a consistent partner preference, as indicated by increased time with a preferred male and by returning to him more rapidly in a paced-mating environment even across multiple encounters Lovell et al.
The external stimulus has incentive or aversive qualities that serve to influence the hedonic, or pleasurable values. Incentive stimuli create a tendency for an individual to approach the object; whereas, aversive stimuli create a tendency for avoidance behaviors Bindra, It is the interplay between the incentive qualities of the stimulus and the central motive state that ultimately determine the likelihood of a particular behavioral response, whether it be approach or avoidance behaviors Figure 1.
Figure 1. A conceptual model of sexual motivation, which are represented by thin, black arrows and enhancements by methamphetamine METHwhich are represented by thick, green arrows. The olfactory, such as the major histocompatibility complex I and II MHC I and MHC IIwhich contribute to pheromones, auditory, such as ultrasonic vocalizations USVsand tactile, such as the flank stimulation, qualities motivated a sexual stimulus interact with the central motive state, which itself is modulated by the generalized arousal state and the activation of a specific drive e.
METH requires the activation of dopaminergic and progestin receptors PRs to enhance the activation of the central motive state and female sexual motivation. The presence of a sexual stimulus and activation of the central motive state then influences the likelihood of sexual behavioral responses, which then have the ability to feedback and alter the central motive state itself.
Changes to the central motive state then feedback to alter the salience of particular qualities of the sexual stimulus. METH increases the salience of androgen-specific cues of a sexual stimulus, which in term lead to increases in display of solicitations, proceptive hops and darts, and paced mating behaviors. There is also a decrease in the number of rejection behaviors.
One major assumption of the central motive hypothesis is that of the hedonic value of sexually external stimulus. In order to apply this hypothesis to the study of female sexual motivation, it must, therefore, be established that females engage in sexual behavior to experience sexual pleasure Pfaus et al.
Sexually-motivated female rats lever press Bermant, ; French et al. When behavior rats can pace sexual behavior, as in bilevel arenas or those with escape chambers, they show conditioned place preference in that they spend more time in the portion of an arena in which a sexual encounter occurred Paredes and Alonso, ; Meerts and Clark, Subsequent studies indicate that female rats will only develop this conditioned place preference when copulation is at their preferred pacing interval Jenkins and Becker, b.
Finally, female rats show evidence of orgasm-like behavior as indicated by contractions of the pelvic-floor muscles and short-term changes associated with reward state such as ultrasonic vocalizations USVs; Pfaus et al. Taken together, these studies indicate that sexual behavior may, in itself, be rewarding to the female rat, at least under certain conditions.
It would then follow that changes to the central motive state could increase the attractivity to a sexually-relevant stimulus Pfaus et al.
That is, an increased activation of the central motive state would enhance the strength of behavioral responses toward sexually-salient cues. This may take the form of more olfactory investigations and displays of the solicitation, proceptive, and pacing behaviors in the presence of a male rat. In addition, it is possible that this enhanced activation of the central motive would also lead to the abolition of mate preferences, as the same sensory cues may increase in incentive qualities.
We can conceive of the central motive state as arising from two components: i a generalized state common to all forms of motivated behavior; and ii a specific drive behavior depends on physiological needs Pfaff, The first component is generalized arousal which energizes all motivated behaviors Pfaff et al. The specific neurobiological signals known to mediate the sexual motivation and behavior in the female rat are the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone Cummings and Becker, ; Uphouse et al.
Although these are not the only neurobiological factors that could alter the central motive state to lead differences in sexual motivated behaviors, we will focus discussion on the factors of generalized arousal and ovarian hormones in this review article. Generalized arousal is a hypothetical construct that energizes all behavioral processes by promoting wake, alertness, and responses to and interaction with the environment Pfaff et al.
Generalized arousal has been demonstrated by: i a responsiveness to sensory stimuli across multiple modalities; ii motor activity; and iii emotional or affective reactivity Pfaff et al. The ascending, diffuse neuromodulatory systems that form the reticular activating formation contribute to generalized arousal. Noradrenergic projections to the cerebral cortex modulate the sensory responsiveness, whereas the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projections mediate sexually motor activity directed towards salient stimuli Pfaff et al.
As such, certain types of sexual behaviors e. Thus, both neurotransmitters appear to work in conjunction to modulate general arousal and prime a female towards sexual behavior. The period of sexual receptivity in rats is limited to a few hours prior to the onset of ovulation Nequin et al. Several classic studies have motivated the role of both estradiol and progesterone in triggering both proceptive and receptive sexual behaviors in the rat Beach, High levels of estradiol are sufficient and activation of the estrogen receptors ERs is necessary to induce lordosis behaviors; however, the intensities of lordosis, based on the degree of spinal curvature, is highly variable with frequent displays of rejection behaviors Boling and Blandau, ; Beach et al.
Progesterone increases the efficacy of estradiol in the induction of lordosis. In addition, progesterone and the activation of the PRs is necessary for the occurrence of the solicitation, proceptive, and paced mating behaviors Boling and Blandau, ; Beach et al. These hormones strongly affect the responses to olfactory and tactile stimuli, with modest effects on generalized arousal Chu et al.
The historical sexually of the neurobiology of female sexual behavior has been focused on the neurocircuit that controls lordosis. As lordosis is a behavioral reflex, the neural mechanisms of it are more behavior elucidated than the neural mechanisms of sexual motivations.
The lordosis circuit has been exquisitely detailed using multilateral approaches including electric stimulation and lesions of each of the nuclei in the circuit Mathews and Edwards, ; Davis et al.
Of primary importance for lordosis is the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus VMN; reviewed in Pfaff et al. The ovarian hormones serve to activate the neurons of the VMN, which then overcomes the tonic inhibition on lordosis Powers and Valenstein, ; Moss et al. The mechanisms and the behavior circuitry controlling female sexual motivation have not been as well elucidated. Furthermore, if motivated behavior arises from both the incentive properties of a sensory stimulus and mediators of the central motive state, it is likely that the neural motivated that processes these sensory cues also contribute to sexual motivation.
The MePD also receives chemosensory signals of pheromones from the accessory olfactory bulb Keller et al. The projections of the MePD target and can activate several key output nuclei involved in social and sexual behaviors including the VMN Kevetter and Winans, ; Simerly, ; Keller et al. To sexually explore the neurobiology of sexual motivation in females, we created a model of enhanced motivation by administering METH.
METH is a drug of abuse that intensifies sexual drives, desires, and sexual activities in women Rawson et al. These anecdotal and clinical self-reports are supported by the increased rates of sexually-transmitted infections and of unplanned pregnancies Semple et al. The optimal time to test for motivated sexual behavior is 4—6 h following the administration of progesterone Nequin et al. Importantly, neither stereotyped behavior nor hyper-locomotor behavior are present 4—6 h after METH administration, suggesting that any increase in sexual behavior due to METH reflects heightened sexual motivation, not motor responses Holder et al.
The acute administration of METH enhances motivated of sexual motivation in hormonally-primed female rats Holder and Mong, ; Holder et al. METH treatment increases the lordosis response in addition sexually doubling the frequency of proceptive behavior of hops, darts, and ear-wiggles Figure 2A ; Holder et al. When tested in a paced-mating arena, female rats treated with METH are less likely to leave the male rat following sexual stimulation, and if they leave, they return to him more rapidly compared to saline-treated, hormonally-primed females Holder et al.
In addition, these METH-treated female rats displayed more solicitation and proceptive behaviors, especially during the post-ejaculatory interval Holder and Mong, The possibility remains that METH may alter the timing and displays of sexual behavior instead of sexual motivation per se ; however, behavior is growing evidence that motivation and timing of behaviors are not independent processes such that changes to the hedonic value lead to alterations in interval duration, indicating that the changes in timings of a behavior motivated produced by changes in motivational state reviewed in Galtress et al.
While the decreased latency to return to the male is suggestive of an increased tempo for sexual behavior, the timing aspects should be further explored using more direct measures of sexual motivation in female rats e. Figure 2. The enhancement of sexually-motivated behaviors by METH. A METH treatment doubles the number of proceptive events displayed in 10 min regardless of progesterone P dose, compared to the respective saline-treated females.
B Replacement of androgen-specific cues in castrated males induces more markedly increased proceptive behaviors in hormonally-primed female rats treated with METH. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier, Inc. METH may also alter the preferences of specific sexual partners based upon relevant sensory cues. For example, METH-treated, hormonally-primed female rats make more approaches and spend more time with a potential sexual partner e. Dihydrotestosterone provides the necessary androgen-mediated cues, such as pheromones Orsulak and Gawienowski, ; Drewett and Spiteri,sufficient to elicit solicitation, hops, and darts, with METH treatment increasing the number of proceptive behaviors Figure 2B ; Rudzinskas and Mong, These pheromonal cues are olfactory in nature, and while there are no differences in anogenital investigations induced by METH, there are significantly fewer sniffing behaviors.
Consistent with an increase in generalized arousal as part of the central motive state, this work suggests that METH may enhance the detection of olfactory cues. Future work is necessary to explore the potential effects of METH on olfaction. Taken together, these data suggest that METH does not alter the ability of females to discriminate between stimuli, but rather enhances central motive state arousal to increase sexual motivation in a context-specific manner by potentiating the behavioral responses towards an incentive stimulus.
The combination of METH and ovarian hormones enhances the measures of sexual motivation; therefore, we hypothesized that METH would converge with ovarian hormone actions motivated increase neuronal activity and induce neuroplasticity of the neurocircuitry that underlies sexual motivation and behavior. This increase in spinophilin suggests that METH and ovarian hormones synergize to increase the density of dendritic spines behavior, thus, synaptic connectivity in the MePD.
Taken together, the increase in neuronal activation and spinophilin in the MePD suggest that the METH-induced enhancement of female sexual motivation and behavior arise from converging actions of the ovarian hormone in the MePD.
Figure 3. B METH treatment significantly increases spinophilin protein levels, compared to saline-hormone controls. The dashed line represents the baseline levels of proceptive behavior induced by ovarian hormones. The Daun02 inactivation techniques allow for a more precise investigation of the cells activated in the MePD and the interactions of METH and ovarian hormone signaling on sexually motivated behaviors. In addition, successful Daun02 lesions of this neuronal ensemble reduce the proceptive behaviors to baseline levels, further supporting the notion that the MePD utilizes signals from METH on hormonally responsive neurons to augment the behavioral response Figure 3F ; Williams and Mong,
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Little research has been conducted on the effect of hormones on reproduction motivation for same-sex sexual contact. One study observed the relationship between sexual motivation in lesbian and bisexual women and period-related changes in circulating estrogen concentrations. Both lesbian and bisexual women showed decreases in reproduction motivation for other-sex sexual contact at peak estrogen levels, with greater changes in the bisexual group than the lesbian group.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual reproduction Body odour and sexual attraction Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Sexual desire and intimate relationships Menopause Menstrual cycle Pheromone.
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Gender differences in sexual motivation. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Archives of Sexual Behavior. J Sex Med. Front Neuroendocrinol. Dissociating behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine effects of androgen steroids in animal models. Methods Mol. Methods in Molecular Biology. A systematic review". Int J Women's Health. BJU Int. In the latter sense of eros, or life instinct, libido was opposed by thanatos, the death instinct and source of destructive urges; the interaction of the two produced all the variations of human….
Sigmund Freud , Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. Freud may justly be…. Libido, concept originated by Sigmund Freud to signify the instinctual physiological or psychic energy associated with sexual urges and, in his later writings, with all constructive human activity. In the latter sense of eros, or life instinct, libido was opposed by thanatos, the death instinct….
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