Sex-pol by Wilhelm Reich, unknown edition, 4 editions of Sex-pol found in the catalog. Download catalog record: RDF / JSON / OPDS | Wikipedia citation. Wikipedia contributors Sex-pol. movement. TOC Previous Next Partly in response to the shooting he had witnessed in Vienna, Reich, then 30, opened six free. "Sex-Pol stood for the German Society of Proletarian Sexual Politics." https://en.msinope.info#Sex-pol_movement .
"Sex-Pol stood for the German Society of Proletarian Sexual Politics." https://en.msinope.info#Sex-pol_movement . Coins 'Sex-pol' (sex and politics) naturally. - Discovers orgasm potency, the function of the orgasm, can't imagine sinope.info. referred to by the short-hand SEXPOL, was on organization founded ://en.sinope.info".
referred to by the short-hand SEXPOL, was on organization founded ://en.sinope.info". Wilhelm Reich was an Austrian doctor of medicine and psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after. "Sex-Pol stood for the German Society of Proletarian Sexual Politics." https://en.msinope.info#Sex-pol_movement .
Reich's work wiki character contributed to the development of Anna Freud 's The Ego and the Mechanisms sexool Defenceand his idea of muscular armour—the expression of the personality in the way the body moves—shaped innovations such as wiko psychotherapyGestalt therapybioenergetic analysis and primal therapy.
After graduating in medicine from the Sexpoll of Vienna inReich became deputy director of Freud 's outpatient clinic, the Vienna Ambulatorium. He visited wiki in their homes to see how they lived, and took to the streets in a mobile clinic, promoting adolescent sexuality and the availability of contraceptives, abortion and divorce, a provocative message in Catholic Austria.
From the s secpol became an increasingly controversial figure, and wiku until his death in all his work was self-published. In he started building orgone accumulators, devices that his patients sat wkii to harness the reputed health benefits, leading to newspaper stories about sexpkl boxes that cured cancer. Food and Drug Administration obtained an injunction against the interstate shipment of orgone accumulators and associated literature, believing they were dealing with a "fraud of the first magnitude".
There was a sister too, born one year after Reich, but she died in infancy. Shortly after his birth the family moved to Jujinetza village in Bukovinawhere his father ran a cattle farm leased by his mother's uncle, Josef Blum. His father was described as jealous man.
Reich and his brother, Robert, were brought up to speak only German, were punished for using Yiddish expressions and forbidden from playing with the local Yiddish-speaking children. As an adult Reich wrote extensively, in his diary, about his sexual precocity.
He maintained that his first sexual experience was at the age of four when he tried to have sex with the family maid with whom he shared a bedthat he would regularly watch the farm animals have sex, that sexpol used a whip handle sexually on the horses while masturbating, and that he had almost daily sexpol intercourse from the age of 11 with another of the servants. He wrote of regular visits to brothels, the first when he was 15, and said he was visiting wioi daily from the age of wiku He also developed sexual fantasies about his mother, writing when he was 22 that he wili while thinking about her.
It is impossible to judge the truth of these diary entries, but Reich's second daughter, the psychiatrist Lore Reich Rubin, told Christopher Turner that she believed Reich had been a victim of child sexual abuse sexpol, and that this sexpol his lifelong interest in sex sex;ol childhood sexuality. Reich was taught at home until he was 12, when his mother was discovered having an affair with his live-in tutor.
He briefly thought of forcing her to have sex with him, on pain of threatening to tell his father. In the end, he did tell his father, and after a protracted period of beatings, his mother committed wioi infor which Reich blamed himself.
With the tutor ordered out of the house, Reich was sent to an all-male gymnasium in Czernowitz. It was during this period that a skin condition appeared, diagnosed as psoriasisthat plagued him for the rest of sexpol life, leading several commentators to sedpol on his ruddy complexion. He visited brothels every day and wikk in his diary of his disgust for the women.
The Russians invaded Bukovina that summer and the Reich brothers fled, losing everything. Reich wrote in his diary: "I never saw either my homeland or my possessions again. Of a well-to-do past, nothing was left. Reich joined the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War, serving wikki tofor the last two wiki as a lieutenant at the Italian front with 40 men under his command. When the war ended he headed for Vienna, enrolling in law at the University of Viennabut found it dull and switched to medicine after the first semester.
Wik arrived with nothing in a city with little to offer; the overthrow of the Austria-Hungarian empire a few weeks earlier had left the newly formed Republic of German-Austria in the grip of famine. Reich lived on soup, oats and dried sespol from the university canteen, and shared an unheated room with his brother and another undergraduate, wearing his coat and gloves indoors to stave off the cold.
He fell in love with another medical student, Lia Laszky, with whom he was dissecting a corpse, but it was largely unrequited. The question, "What is Life? It became clear that the mechanistic concept of life, which dominated our study of medicine at the time, was unsatisfactory There was no denying the sexppl of creative power governing life; only it was not satisfactory as long as it was not tangible, as long as it could not be described or practically handled.
For, rightly, this was considered the supreme goal of natural science. Reich first met Sigmund Freud in when he asked Freud for a reading list for a seminar concerning sexology. It seems they left a strong impression on each other. Freud allowed him to start meeting with analytic patients in September that year, although Reich sdxpol just 22 years old and still an undergraduate, which gave him a small income. He was accepted as a guest member of the Vienna Wikki Associationbecoming a regular member in Octoberand began his own analysis with Isidor Sadger.
He lived and worked out of sexpol apartment on Berggasse 7, the street on which Freud lived at no. One of Reich's first patients was Lore Kahn, a year-old woman with whom he had an affair. Freud sexpol warned analysts not to involve themselves with their patients, but in the early days of psychoanalysis the warnings went unheeded.
According to Reich's diaries, Kahn became ill in November and died of sepsis after sleeping in a bitterly cold room she had rented as wuki place for her and Reich to seexpol both his landlady and her parents had forbidden their meetings. Kahn's mother suspected that her daughter had died after a botched illegal abortion, possibly performed by Reich himself.
According to Christopher Turnershe found some of her daughter's bloodied underwear in a cupboard. It was a serious allegation to make against sexool physician. Reich eexpol in his diary that the mother had been attracted to him and had made the allegation to damage him. She later committed suicide and Reich blamed ssexpol. Two months after Kahn's death, Reich accepted her friend, Annie Pink —as an analysand. Pink was Reich's fourth female patient, sexpol medical student three months shy of her 19th birthday.
He had an affair with her too, and married her in March at her father's insistence, with psychoanalysts Otto Fenichel and Edith Buxbaum as wiki.
The marriage produced two daughters, Eva — sexpoll Lore b. Because he was a war veteran, Reich was allowed wi,i complete a combined bachelor's and M. In Reich began working in Freud's psychoanalytic outpatient clinic, known as the Vienna Ambulatorium, which was opened on wiki May that year at Pelikangasse wiki by Eduard Hitschmann. Reich became the assistant director under Hitschmann in and worked there until his move to Berlin in Between and the clinic offered free or reduced-cost psychoanalysis to 1, men and women, many suffering from shell shock after World War I.
It was the second such clinic to open under Freud's direction; the first was the Poliklinik in Berlin, set up in by Max Eitingon and Ernst Wi,i. Sharaf writes that working with labourers, ssexpol and students allowed Reich to move away from treating neurotic symptoms to observing chaotic lifestyles and anti-social personalities. They were examples of what he called "character armour" Charakterpanzerrepetitive patterns of behaviour, speech wiki body posture that served as defence mechanisms.
According to Danto, Reich sought out patients at the Ambulatorium who had been diagnosed as psychopaths, believing that psychoanalysis could free them of their rage. Reich joined the faculty of the Psychoanalytic Institute in Vienna in and became its director of training. According to a Danish newspaper in The moment he starts to speak, not at the lectern, but walking around it on cat's paws, he is simply enchanting.
In the Middle Ages, this man would have been sent into exile. He is not only eloquent, he also keeps his listeners spellbound by his sparking personality, reflected in his small, dark sexpl.
Beginning in Reich published a series of papers on the idea of "orgastic potency", the ability to release the emotions from the muscles and lose the self in an uninhibited orgasm, an idea that Freud came to sex;ol Reich's " Steckenpferd " hobby horse. It is the real emotional experience of the loss of your ego, of your whole spiritual self. Whereas Reich's work on character was well received by the psychoanalytic community, Sharaf writes, his work on orgastic potency was unpopular from the start and later ridiculed.
He came to be known as the "prophet of the better orgasm" and the wiiki of a genital utopia". Reich's brother died of tuberculosis TB inthe same disease that had killed their father. Turner writes that a quarter of deaths in Wiki were caused by TB in the s. Reich himself contracted it in sedpol spent several weeks in the winter of that year in a sanitorium in Davos, Switzerland, where TB patients went for rest cures and fresh air before antibiotics became widely available around Turner writes that Reich underwent a political and existential crisis in Davos; he returned home in the spring angry and paranoid, according to Annie Reich.
Some months later he and Annie were on the streets during the July Revolt of in Vienna, when 84 workers were shot and killed by wkii and another were sxepol. It seems that the experience changed Reich; siki wrote that it was his first wiki with human irrationality. As if struck by a blow, one suddenly recognizes the scientific futility, the biological senselessness, and the social noxiousness of views and institutions, which until that moment had seemed altogether natural and self-evident.
It is a kind of eschatological experience so frequently encountered in a pathological form in wiki. I sexpoll even voice the belief that the schizophrenic form of psychic illness is regularly accompanied by illuminating insight into the irrationalism of social and political mores. Partly in response to the shooting he had witnessed in Vienna, Reich, then 30, opened six free sex-counselling clinics in the city in for working-class patients.
Each clinic was overseen by a physician, with three obstetricians and a lawyer on call, and offered what Reich called Sex-Pol counselling. Reich offered a mixture of "psychoanalytic counseling, Marxist advice sexpol contraceptives", Danto writes, and argued for a sexual permissiveness, including for young people and the unmarried, that unsettled other psychoanalysts and the political left.
The clinics were immediately overcrowded by people wiii help. He also took to the streets in a mobile clinic, driving to parks and out to the suburbs with other psychoanalysts and physicians. Reich would talk to the teenagers and men, while a gynaecologist fitted the women with contraceptive devices, and Lia Laszky, the woman Reich fell in love with at medical school, spoke to the children.
They also distributed sex-education pamphlets door to door. He had presented a copy of the manuscript to Freud on the latter's 70th birthday on 6 May sexpol He replied, "That thick? We have here a Dr. Reich, a worthy but impetuous young man, passionately devoted to his hobby-horse, who now salutes in the genital orgasm the antidote to every neurosis.
Perhaps he might learn from your analysis wiji K. In Reich and his wife wki the Soviet Union on a lecture tour, leaving the two children sexpol the care of the psychoanalyst Berta Bornstein. Sharaf writes that wiki returned even more convinced of wwiki link between sexual and economic oppression, and of the need to integrate Marx and Freud. The article explored sexpil psychoanalysis was compatible with historical materialism, class struggle and proletarian revolution.
Reich concluded that they were compatible if dialectical materialism was applied to psychology. Reich and his wife moved to Berlin in Novemberwhere he set up clinics in working-class areas, taught sex education and published pamphlets. His subsequent involvement in seexpol conference promoting adolescent sexuality caused the party to announce that it would no longer publish his material. On March 24, Freud told him that his contract with the International Psychoanalytic Publishers to publish Character Analysis had been cancelled.
Sharaf writes that this was almost certainly because of Reich's stance on teenage sex. It was revised and published in English in and as Character Analysis. The book sought to move psychoanalysis toward a reconfiguration of character structure. For Reich, character structure was the result of social processes, in particular a reflection of castration and Oedipal anxieties playing themselves out within the nuclear family.
Sharaf writes that working with labourers, farmers and students allowed Reich to move away from treating neurotic symptoms to observing chaotic lifestyles and anti-social personalities.
They were examples of what he called "character armour" Charakterpanzer , repetitive patterns of behaviour, speech and body posture that served as defence mechanisms.
According to Danto, Reich sought out patients at the Ambulatorium who had been diagnosed as psychopaths, believing that psychoanalysis could free them of their rage. Reich joined the faculty of the Psychoanalytic Institute in Vienna in and became its director of training. According to a Danish newspaper in The moment he starts to speak, not at the lectern, but walking around it on cat's paws, he is simply enchanting.
In the Middle Ages, this man would have been sent into exile. He is not only eloquent, he also keeps his listeners spellbound by his sparking personality, reflected in his small, dark eyes. Beginning in Reich published a series of papers on the idea of "orgastic potency", the ability to release the emotions from the muscles and lose the self in an uninhibited orgasm, an idea that Freud came to call Reich's " Steckenpferd " hobby horse.
It is the real emotional experience of the loss of your ego, of your whole spiritual self. Whereas Reich's work on character was well received by the psychoanalytic community, Sharaf writes, his work on orgastic potency was unpopular from the start and later ridiculed. He came to be known as the "prophet of the better orgasm" and the "founder of a genital utopia".
Reich's brother died of tuberculosis TB in , the same disease that had killed their father. Turner writes that a quarter of deaths in Vienna were caused by TB in the s. Reich himself contracted it in and spent several weeks in the winter of that year in a sanitorium in Davos, Switzerland, where TB patients went for rest cures and fresh air before antibiotics became widely available around Turner writes that Reich underwent a political and existential crisis in Davos; he returned home in the spring angry and paranoid, according to Annie Reich.
Some months later he and Annie were on the streets during the July Revolt of in Vienna, when 84 workers were shot and killed by police and another were injured. It seems that the experience changed Reich; he wrote that it was his first encounter with human irrationality. As if struck by a blow, one suddenly recognizes the scientific futility, the biological senselessness, and the social noxiousness of views and institutions, which until that moment had seemed altogether natural and self-evident.
It is a kind of eschatological experience so frequently encountered in a pathological form in schizophrenics. I might even voice the belief that the schizophrenic form of psychic illness is regularly accompanied by illuminating insight into the irrationalism of social and political mores.
Partly in response to the shooting he had witnessed in Vienna, Reich, then 30, opened six free sex-counselling clinics in the city in for working-class patients. Each clinic was overseen by a physician, with three obstetricians and a lawyer on call, and offered what Reich called Sex-Pol counselling.
Reich offered a mixture of "psychoanalytic counseling, Marxist advice and contraceptives", Danto writes, and argued for a sexual permissiveness, including for young people and the unmarried, that unsettled other psychoanalysts and the political left. The clinics were immediately overcrowded by people seeking help. He also took to the streets in a mobile clinic, driving to parks and out to the suburbs with other psychoanalysts and physicians.
Reich would talk to the teenagers and men, while a gynaecologist fitted the women with contraceptive devices, and Lia Laszky, the woman Reich fell in love with at medical school, spoke to the children. They also distributed sex-education pamphlets door to door.
He had presented a copy of the manuscript to Freud on the latter's 70th birthday on 6 May He replied, "That thick? We have here a Dr. Reich, a worthy but impetuous young man, passionately devoted to his hobby-horse, who now salutes in the genital orgasm the antidote to every neurosis.
Perhaps he might learn from your analysis of K. In Reich and his wife visited the Soviet Union on a lecture tour, leaving the two children in the care of the psychoanalyst Berta Bornstein. Sharaf writes that he returned even more convinced of the link between sexual and economic oppression, and of the need to integrate Marx and Freud. The article explored whether psychoanalysis was compatible with historical materialism, class struggle and proletarian revolution.
Reich concluded that they were compatible if dialectical materialism was applied to psychology. Reich and his wife moved to Berlin in November , where he set up clinics in working-class areas, taught sex education and published pamphlets. His subsequent involvement in a conference promoting adolescent sexuality caused the party to announce that it would no longer publish his material.
On March 24, Freud told him that his contract with the International Psychoanalytic Publishers to publish Character Analysis had been cancelled. Sharaf writes that this was almost certainly because of Reich's stance on teenage sex. It was revised and published in English in and as Character Analysis. The book sought to move psychoanalysis toward a reconfiguration of character structure. For Reich, character structure was the result of social processes, in particular a reflection of castration and Oedipal anxieties playing themselves out within the nuclear family.
Reich proposed that muscular armour was a defence that contained the history of the patient's traumas. Reich had several affairs during his marriage to Annie Reich , which ended in after he began a serious relationship in May with Elsa Lindenberg, a dancer and pupil of Elsa Gindler.
They moved from there to Denmark, where Reich was excluded from the Danish Communist Party in November without ever having joined it because of his promotion of teenage sex and the publication that year of The Mass Psychology of Fascism , which they regarded as "counterrevolutionary".
There were multiple complaints about his promotion of abortion, sex education, and the attempted suicide of a teenage patient. According to Turner, when Reich's visa expired, it was not renewed. They decided that he had been "insufficiently analysed" and had an unresolved hostility toward Freud. He is an unhappy person From onwards, Reich began to treat patients outside the limits of psychoanalysis's restrictions.
He would sit opposite them, rather than behind them as they lay on a couch the traditional psychoanalyst's position , and begin talking to them and answering their questions, instead of offering the stock, "Why do you ask? He had noticed that after a successful course of psychoanalysis his patients would hold their bodies differently, so he began to try to communicate with the body using touch.
He asked his male patients to undress down to their shorts, and sometimes entirely, and his female patients down to their underclothes, and began to massage them to loosen their body armour. He would also ask them to simulate physically the effects of certain emotions in the hope of triggering them. The method eliminated the psychoanalytic doctrine of neutrality.
Reich argued that the psychoanalytic taboos reinforced the neurotic taboos of the patient, and that he wanted his patients to see him as human. If the session worked, he would see waves of pleasure move through their bodies, which he called the "orgasm reflex".
According to Sharaf, the twin goals of Reichian therapy were the attainment of this orgasm reflex during sessions and orgastic potency during intercourse. Reich briefly considered calling it "orgasmotherapy", but thought better of it. Just before the Lucerne conference, Reich was asked to resign from the International Psychoanalytical Association, where Anna Freud was the "acknowledged leader" at the time, for prioritizing his revolutionary agenda over Freud's ideas.
According to Lore Reich Rubin, Reich's daughter, Anna Freud was responsible for destroying her father's career, "she got rid of him". Turner writes that he cemented his reputation as a madman, camping in a tent outside the conference hall and reportedly carrying a large knife in his belt. Schjelderup , professor of psychology at the University of Oslo , had invited Reich to lecture on character analysis and vegetotherapy. They ended up staying for five years. He wanted to know what additional element had to be present for pleasure to be felt.
Reich was influenced by the work of the Austrian internist Friedrich Kraus , who argued in his paper Allgemeine und Spezielle Pathologie der Person that the biosystem was a relay-like switch mechanism of electrical charge and discharge.
In Reich bought an oscillograph and attached it to friends and students, who volunteered to touch and kiss each other while Reich read the tracings. One of the volunteers was a young Willy Brandt , the future chancellor of Germany. At the time, he was married to Reich's secretary, Gertrude Gaasland, and was living in Norway to organize protests against the Nazis.
Reich also took measurements from the patients of a psychiatric hospital near Oslo, including catatonic patients, with the permission of the hospital's director. From to Reich conducted what he called the bion experiments, which he published as Die Bione: zur Entstehung des vegetativen Lebens in Oslo in February published in English in and later called The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life. Having heated the materials to incandescence with a heat-torch, he wrote that he had seen bright, glowing, blue vesicles.
His photographs and films of his experiments were taken by Kari Berggrav. He called them "bions" and believed they were a rudimentary form of life, halfway between life and non-life.
He wrote that when he poured the cooled mixture onto growth media, bacteria were born, dismissing the idea that the bacteria were already present in the air or on other materials. In what Sharaf writes was the origins of the orgone theory, Reich said he could see two kinds of bions, the blue vesicles and smaller red ones shaped like lancets. He concluded that, when orgone energy diminishes in cells through aging or injury, the cells undergo "bionous degeneration".
At some point the deadly T-bacilli start to form in the cells. Death from cancer, he believed, was caused by an overwhelming growth of the T-bacilli. Scientists in Oslo reacted strongly to Reich's work on bions, deriding it as nonsense.
Tidens Tegn , a leading liberal newspaper, launched a campaign against him in , supported by scientists and other newspapers.
In the Norwegian pathologist Leiv Kreyberg was allowed to examine one of Reich's bion preparations under a microscope.
Kreyberg wrote that the broth Reich had used as his culture medium was indeed sterile, but that the bacteria were ordinary staphylococci. He concluded that Reich's control measures to prevent infection from airborne bacteria were not as foolproof as Reich believed.
Kreyberg accused Reich of being ignorant of basic bacteriological and anatomical facts, while Reich accused Kreyberg of having failed to recognize living cancer cells under magnification. Kreyberg alleged that "Mr. Reich" knew less about bacteria and anatomy than a first-year medical student. When Reich requested a detailed control study, Kreyberg responded that his work did not merit it. By February Reich's visa had expired.
Several Norwegian scientists argued against an extension, Kreyberg saying, "If it is a question of handing Dr. Reich over to the Gestapo, then I will fight that, but if one could get rid of him in a decent manner, that would be the best. Neill , founder of Summerhill , a progressive school in England, who argued that "the campaign against Reich seems largely ignorant and uncivilized, more like fascism than democracy".
Norway was proud of its intellectual tolerance, so the "Reich affair", especially following the country's expulsion of Leon Trotsky , put Nygaardsvold's government on the spot. A compromise was found. Reich was given his visa, but a royal decree was issued stipulating that anyone wanting to practice psychoanalysis needed a licence, and it was understood that Reich would not be given one.
Throughout the affair Reich issued just one public statement, when he asked for a commission to replicate his bion experiments. Sharaf writes that the opposition to his work affected his personality and relationships.
He was left humiliated, no longer comfortable in public, and seething with bitterness against the researchers who had denounced him. According to Sharaf, — was the happiest period of Reich's personal life, despite the professional problems.
His relationship with Elsa Lindenberg was good and he considered marrying her. When she became pregnant in , they were initially overjoyed, buying clothes and furniture for the child, but doubts developed for Reich, who saw the future as too unsettled. To Lindenberg's great distress, Sharaf writes, Reich insisted on an abortion, at that time illegal.
They went to Berlin, where the psychoanalyst Edith Jacobson helped to arrange it. In Reich began an affair with a female patient, an actress who had been married to a colleague of his.
According to Sigurd Hoel, the analysis would stop because of the relationship, then the relationship would end and the analysis would start up again.
The patient eventually threatened to go to the press, but was persuaded that it would harm her as much as it would Reich. Around the same time, Reich also had an affair with Gerd Bergersen, a year-old Norwegian textile designer. Despite the affairs, Sharaf writes that, as the newspaper campaign against Reich gained pace, he developed an intense jealousy toward Lindenberg, demanding that she not have a separate life of any kind.
He even physically assaulted a composer with whom she was working. Lindenberg considered calling the police but decided Reich could not afford another scandal. His behaviour took its toll on their relationship, and when Reich asked her to accompany him to the United States, she said no. Later that year, Theodore P. Wolfe, a professor of psychiatry at Columbia University, traveled to Norway to study under Reich.
I am sitting in a completely empty apartment waiting for my American visa. I have misgivings as to how it will go. I am utterly and horribly alone! It will be quite an undertaking to carry on all the work in America. Essentially, I am a great man, a rarity, as it were. I can't quite believe it myself, however, and that is why I struggle against playing the role of a great man.
He received the visa in August and sailed out of Norway on 19 August on the SS Stavangerfjord , the last ship to leave for the United States before the war began on 3 September. He built a small Faraday cage to examine the vapors and lights he said the bions were producing. Reich was still in love with Lindenberg, but Ollendorf started organizing his life for him, becoming his bookkeeper and laboratory assistant. She was eight weeks pregnant, but according to Turner he insisted that she have an abortion.
Sharaf writes that Reich's personality changed after his experience in Oslo. His students in the United States came to know him as a man that no colleague, no matter how close, called by his first name. In January he wrote to Lindenberg to end their relationship once and for all, telling her that he was in despair and that he believed he would end up dying like a dog. It was shortly after he arrived in New York in that Reich first said he had discovered a biological or cosmic energy, an extension of Freud's idea of the libido.
He called it "orgone energy" or "orgone radiation", and the study of it "orgonomy". Reich said he had seen orgone when he injected his mice with bions and in the sky at night through an "organoscope", a special telescope. He argued that it is in the soil and air indeed, is omnipresent , is blue or blue-grey, and that humanity had divided its knowledge of it in two: aether for the physical aspect and God for the spiritual.
The colour of the sky, the northern lights , St Elmo's Fire , and the blue of sexually excited frogs are manifestations of orgone, he wrote. He also argued that protozoa , red corpuscles , cancer cells and the chlorophyll of plants are charged with it. In he began to build insulated Faraday cages , "orgone accumulators", that he said would concentrate the orgone. The earliest boxes were for laboratory animals. The first human-sized, five-foot-tall box was built in December , and set up in the basement of his house.
Turner writes that it was made of plywood lined with rock wool and sheet iron, and had a chair inside and a small window. The boxes had multiple layers of these materials, which caused the orgone concentration inside the box to be three to five times stronger than in the air, Reich said.
Patients were expected to sit inside them naked. The accumulators were tested on plant growth and mice with cancer. This is proved by the fact that tumors in all parts of the body are disappearing or diminishing. No other remedy in the world can claim such a thing. In one case the test had to be stopped prematurely because the subject heard a rumour that Reich was insane; there were stories, which were false, that he had been hospitalized in the Utica State Mental Hospital.
In another case the father of an eight-year-old girl with cancer approached him for help, then complained to the American Medical Association that he was practising without a licence.
In December Reich wrote to Albert Einstein saying he had a scientific discovery he wanted to discuss, and, in January , visited Einstein at his home in Princeton , where they talked for nearly five hours.
He told Einstein that he had discovered a "specific biologically effective energy which behaves in many respects differently to all that is known about electromagnetic energy". He said it could be used against disease, and as a weapon "in the fight against the Fascist pestilence". Einstein had signed a letter to President Roosevelt in August to warn of the danger of Nazi Germany building an atom bomb, and had urged the United States to establish its own research project.
Einstein agreed that if an object's temperature could be raised without an apparent heating source, as Reich was suggesting, it would be "a bomb".
Reich was much encouraged by the meeting and hoped he would be invited to join Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study. He observed an increase of temperature, which Reich argued was caused by orgone.
Reich responded with a page letter in which he tried to change Einstein's mind. He wrote that in all these circumstances the temperature difference remained, and was in fact more marked in the open air.
Einstein replied that he could not devote any further time to the matter and asked that his name not be misused for advertising purposes. Reich believed that Einstein's change of heart was part of a conspiracy of some kind, perhaps related to the communists or prompted by the rumours that Reich was ill.
Reich published the correspondence in as The Einstein Affair. Reich lost his position at the New School in May after writing to its director, Alvin Johnson , to say he had saved several lives in secret experiments with the accumulator.
Johnson was aware of Reich's claims that he could cure cancer, and told him the New School was not an appropriate institution for the work. Reich was also evicted from Kessel Street after his neighbours complained about the animal experiments.
On 12 December , five days after the attack on Pearl Harbor and a day after Germany declared it was at war with the United States , Reich was arrested in his home at 2 a. After threatening to go on hunger strike he was released, on 5 January, but his name remained on the "key figures list" of the Enemy Alien Control Unit, which meant he was placed under surveillance.
Turner writes that it seems Reich was the victim of mistaken identity; there was a William Reich who ran a bookstore in New Jersey, which was used to distribute Communist material. This German immigrant described himself as the Associate Professor of Medical Psychology, Director of the Orgone Institute, President and research physician of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation and discoverer of biological or life energy.
A security investigation was begun to determine the extent of Reich's communist commitments. A board of Alien Enemy Hearing judged that Dr. Reich was not a threat to the security of the U. In , a security investigation concluded that neither the Orgone Project nor any of its staff were engaged in subversive activities or were in violation of any statute within the jurisdiction of the FBI.
Calling it Orgonon, he started spending summers there, and had a one-room cabin built in , a laboratory in , a larger cabin in and an observatory in In he decided to live there year-round, and in May that year moved from New York with Ilse, their son, Peter, and Reich's daughter Eva, with the idea of creating a centre for the study of orgone. Several colleagues moved there with him, including two physicians with an interest in orgone, and Lois Wyvell, who ran the Orgone Press Institute.
Until Reich enjoyed a largely uncritical press in the United States. One journal, Psychosomatic Medicine , had called orgone a "surrealist creation", but his psychoanalytic work had been discussed in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry , The Nation had given his writing positive reviews, and he was listed in American Men of Science. His reputation took a sudden downturn in April and May , when articles by Mildred Edie Brady were published in Harper's and The New Republic , the latter entitled "The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich", with the subhead, "The man who blames both neuroses and cancer on unsatisfactory sexual activities has been repudiated by only one scientific journal.
Of Reich she wrote: "Orgone, named after the sexual orgasm, is, according to Reich, a cosmic energy. It is, in fact, the cosmic energy. Reich has not only discovered it; he has seen it, demonstrated it and named a town—Orgonon, Maine—after it.
Here he builds accumulators of it, which are rented out to patients, who presumably derive 'orgastic potency' from it. He issued a press release, but no one published it. In July Dr. The FDA assigned an investigator to the case, who learned that Reich had built accumulators. The FDA concluded that they were dealing with a "fraud of the first magnitude". According to Sharaf, the FDA suspected a sexual racket of some kind; questions were asked about the women associated with orgonomy and "what was done with them".
Meetings were held in the basement of his house in Forest Hills. Turner wrote that several children who were treated by OIRC therapists later said they had been sexually abused by the therapists, although not by Reich.
One woman said she was assaulted by one of Reich's associates when she was five years old. Children were asked to stand naked in front of Reich and a group of 30 therapists in his basement, while Reich described the children's "blockages". She believed that Reich himself had been abused as a child, which is why he developed such an interest in sex and childhood sexuality.
The sexual allegations apart, several people discussed how the vegetotherapy had hurt them physically as children, as therapists pressed hard on the body to loosen muscular armour. Reich's son, Peter, wrote in his autobiography, Book of Dreams about the pain this had caused him.
Reich and Ilse Ollendorff divorced in September , ostensibly because he thought she had had an affair. She continued working with him for another three years. Even after the divorce, he suspected her of having affairs, and persuaded her to sign confessions about her feelings of fear and hatred toward him, which he locked away in the archives of his Orgone Institute. He wrote several documents denouncing her, while having an affair himself with Lois Wyvell, who ran the Orgone Institute Press.
In , Reich said he had discovered another energy that he called deadly orgone radiation DOR , accumulations of which played a role in desertification. He designed a "cloudbuster", rows of foot aluminium pipes mounted on a mobile platform, connected to cables that were inserted into water. He believed that it could unblock orgone energy in the atmosphere and cause rain. Turner described it as an "orgone box turned inside out".
He conducted dozens of experiments with the cloudbuster, calling his research "Cosmic Orgone Engineering". During a drought in , two farmers in Maine offered to pay him if he could make it rain to save their blueberry crop. Reich used the cloudbuster on the morning of 6 July, and according to Bangor's Daily News —based on an account from an anonymous eyewitness who was probably Peter Reich—rain began to fall that evening.
The crop survived, the farmers declared themselves satisfied, and Reich received his fee. Over the years the FDA interviewed physicians, Reich's students and his patients, asking about the orgone accumulators. The attention of the FDA triggered belligerent responses from Reich, who called them "HiGS" hoodlums in government and the tools of red fascists. He developed a delusion that he had powerful friends in government, including President Eisenhower , who he believed would protect him, and that the U.
Air Force was flying over Orgonon to make sure that he was all right. Sharaf writes that Reich detested unannounced visitors; he had once chased some people away with a gun just for looking at an adjacent property. He told the inspectors they had to read his work before he would interact with them, and ordered them to leave. In February the United States Attorney for the District of Maine filed a page complaint seeking a permanent injunction under Sections and of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to prevent interstate shipment of orgone accumulators and to ban promotional literature.
In a letter to Judge John D. Clifford, Jr. My factual position in the case as well as in the world of science of today does not permit me to enter the case against the Food and Drug Administration, since such action would, in my mind, imply admission of the authority of this special branch of the government to pass judgment on primordial, pre-atomic cosmic orgone energy.
I, therefore, rest the case in full confidence in your hands. The injunction was granted by default on 19 March The judge ordered that all accumulators, parts and instructions be destroyed, and that several of Reich's books that mentioned orgone be withheld.
According to Turner, the injunction triggered a further deterioration in Reich's mental health. From at least early , he came to believe that the planet was under attack by UFOs, or "energy alphas", as he called them. He said he often saw them flying over Orgonon—shaped like thin cigars with windows—leaving streams of black Deadly Orgone Radiation in their wake, which he believed the aliens were scattering to destroy the Earth.
He and his son would spend their nights searching for UFOs through telescopes and binoculars, and when they believed they had found one would roll out the cloudbuster to suck the energy out of it. Reich claimed he had shot several of them down. Armed with two cloudbusters, they fought what Reich called a "full-scale interplanetary battle" in Arizona, where he had rented a house as a base station. In late Reich began an affair with Grethe Hoff, a former patient.
Hoff was married to another former student and patient of his, the psychologist Myron Sharaf , who decades later, with his Fury on Earth , became Reich's main biographer.
Hoff and Sharaf had had their first child the year before Hoff left him for Reich; the marriage was never repaired although the affair had ended by June Walter Roner. While Reich was in Arizona in May , one of his associates sent an accumulator part through the mail to another state, in violation of the injunction, after an FDA inspector posing as a customer requested it.
Michael Silvert, were charged with contempt of court ; Silvert had been looking after the inventory in Reich's absence. Representing himself during the hearing, he admitted the violation but pleaded not guilty and hinted at conspiracies. During a recess the judge apparently suggested a psychiatric evaluation to Reich's ex-wife, Ilse Ollendorff, but this was not communicated to Reich. The jury found him guilty on 7 May , and he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment.
On 5 June two FDA officials arrived at Orgonon to supervise the destruction of the accumulators. Most of them had been sold by that time and another 50 were with Silvert in New York. Only three were at Orgonon. The FDA agents were not allowed to destroy them, only to supervise the destruction, so Reich's friends and his son, Peter, chopped them up with axes as the agents watched. On 26 June the agents returned to supervise the destruction of the promotional material, including copies of Reich's books.
In England A. Neill and the poet Herbert Read signed a letter of protest, but it was never published. On 23 July the remaining accumulators in New York were destroyed by S. Collins and Sons, who had built them. On 23 August six tons of Reich's books, journals and papers were burned in New York, in the Gansevoort incinerator, the public incinerator on 25th Street. Although these had been published in German before Reich ever discussed orgone, he had added mention of it to the English editions, so they were caught by the injunction.
The psychiatrist Victor Sobey d. All the expenses and labor had to be provided by the [Orgone Institute] Press. A huge truck with three to help was hired. I felt like people who, when they are to be executed, are made to dig their own graves first and are then shot and thrown in.
We carried box after box of the literature. Reich appealed the lower court's decision in October , but the Court of Appeals upheld it on 11 December.
Edgar Hoover , director of the FBI, requesting a meeting,  and appealed to the Supreme Court , which decided on 25 February not to review the case. Silvert committed suicide in May , five months after his release. Hubbard, a psychiatrist who admired Reich, examined him on admission, recording paranoia manifested by delusions of grandiosity , persecution, and ideas of reference :. The patient feels that he has made outstanding discoveries.
Gradually over a period of many years he has explained the failure of his ideas in becoming universally accepted by the elaboration of psychotic thinking. This time it was decided that he was mentally competent and that his personality seemed intact, though he might become psychotic when stressed.
I am in Lewisburg. I am calm, certain in my thoughts, and doing mathematics most of the time. I am kind of "above things", fully aware of what is up. Do not worry too much about me, though anything might happen.
I know, Pete, that you are strong and decent. At first I thought that you should not visit me here. I do not know. With the world in turmoil I now feel that a boy your age should experience what is coming his way—fully digest it without getting a "belly ache", so to speak, nor getting off the right track of truth, fact, honesty, fair play, and being above board— never a sneak He applied for a presidential pardon in May, to no avail.
Peter visited him in jail several times, where one prisoner said Reich was known as the "flying saucer guy" and the "Sex Box man". His last letter to his son was on 22 October , when he said he was looking forward to being released on 10 November, having served one third of his sentence.
A parole hearing had been scheduled for a few days before that date. He wrote that he and Peter had a date for a meal at the Howard Johnson restaurant near Peter's school.
Reich failed to appear for roll call on 3 November and was found at 7 a. The prison doctor said he had died during the night of "myocardial insufficiency with sudden heart failure". He had left instructions that there was to be no religious ceremony, but that a record should be played of Schubert's "Ave Maria" sung by Marian Anderson , and that his granite headstone should read simply: "Wilhelm Reich, Born March 24, , Died Time magazine wrote on 18 November Wilhelm Reich, 60, once-famed psychoanalyst, associate and follower of Sigmund Freud, founder of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation, lately better known for unorthodox sex and energy theories; of a heart attack; in Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary, Pa; where he was serving a two-year term for distributing his invention, the "orgone energy accumulator" in violation of the Food and Drug Act , a telephone-booth-size device that supposedly gathered energy from the atmosphere, and could cure, while the patient sat inside, common colds, cancer, and impotence.
The psychoanalyst Richard Sterba wrote in that Reich had been a brilliant clinician and teacher in the s; even the older analysts had wanted to attend his technical seminars in Vienna. There were inaccurate rumours from the late s that he had been hospitalized. Similarly, Sandor Rado had Reich as an analyst and in and declared him schizophrenic "in the most serious way". Reich's daughter, Lore Reich Rubin, a psychiatrist , believed that he had bipolar and had been sexually abused as a child.
Sharaf argued that psychoanalysts tended to dismiss as ill anyone from within the fold who had transgressed, and this was never done so relentlessly as with Reich.
His work was split into the pre-psychotic "good" and the post-psychotic "bad", the date of the illness's onset depending on which parts of his work a speaker disliked. Psychoanalysts preferred to see him as sane in the s because of his work on character, while political radicals regarded him as sane in the s because of his Marxist-oriented research.
He wrote in that for years he and his friends regarded Reich as "something akin to a messiah". Bell started teaching a course on Reich in at New York University through its Division of Continuing Study, and it was still being taught at the time Sharaf was writing Reich's biography in , making it the longest-running course ever taught in that division.
Reich continued to influence popular culture after his death. According to Reich, the authoritarian state uses a variety of tools in order to suppress its citizens' natural sexualities. These tools comprise Reich's view of "conservative, sex-negative moralism" and include:. These various means of suppression in turn cause the authoritarian state's citizens to both repress their natural sexual desires and create new, neurotic, unhealthy sexual desires.
The authoritarian state's motive, whether it is conscious of it or not, is to preserve its economic structure through continuance of the patriarchal family as its primary social unit. The family, according to Reich, is essential to the economic structure of capitalism because it benefits the capitalist as well as preserves itself to the next generation. The latter is achieved through suppression of infantile sexual attraction to the parents, thereby producing a repressed attachment to the family unit.
The child longs for familial relationships and mimics the parent of its own gender in the creation of its own family. The capitalist benefits from the economic unit of the family because of the husband's economic dominance over the wife, who is economically dependent on her husband and works for no wage in the house.
This allows the employer of the husband to pay him a lesser wage because the employer need not take into account the cost that the husband would have to pay a housekeeper or childcare provider.
This lack of extra wage for traditional female housework and child-rearing encourages the woman to stay home to be economical, as well as allows her husband's employer to keep that extra surplus capital for himself. The husband also benefits because he is given power and authority in the home that he does not necessarily get in the workplace. In the preface of the edition, Reich says that "our" Western family structure is inherited from old patriarchy.
Fraenkel notes that the supposed " sexual revolution " claimed for the West since the late 60s is indeed a misconception. Sex is not actually enjoyed freely, it is just observed in all the fields of culture.
In order to move from that to an actual sexual liberation, we must change our mental structures and our moral inhibitions. Instead, the repressive Judeo-Christian morals still basically hold, and small social changes are exaggerated because they're seen in that light. Even many supposed atheists have just secularized and internalized the same old morals.
The bourgeois ideology has a strong demand that adolescents , having reached sexual maturity , be repressed in sexual abstinence. To justify this sad privation, which is the basis of their unhappiness , all sorts of unscientific and ridiculous justifications have been made up.
There is an active effort to obstruct pubescent people from starting to engage in sexual activity. This includes keeping them from finding the information they need to understand their sexual issues. So-called " sex education " is practically always a work of deception which focuses on biology while concealing excitement-arousal , which is what interests them the most, and hides the fact that all their worries and difficulties originate from unsatisfied sexual impulses. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.