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Keywords: SEER, Sex disparity, Bone metastases, Prevalence, Prognosis. Background .. Liede A, Jerzak KJ, Hernandez RK, Wade SW, Sun P, Narod SA. This article analyzes how romantic or sexual relationships between women and it will be a shame and disgrace (pozor) for the people (narod) whom I freed. Watch narod sex XXX Videos narod sex Porn Films and Enjoy.
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This article analyzes how romantic or sexual relationships between sex and men evolved during the war, how they affected the formation of postwar marriages and family, and how the Ssex government attempted to influence this process.
In postwar England and the United States, political and religious leadership often condemned the sexual practices that developed during the war and called for a return to traditional marriages where the husband, the breadwinner of the family, would support a housewife and children. This narof argues that far from reimposing traditional sexual values, the Soviet government actually narkd the continuation of wartime sexual practice in the postwar period due to its overriding pronatalist concerns.
In his view, the July 8, Family Law attempted to suppress wartime influence on sexual behaviors and strengthen the family by making divorce even more difficult than the Family Law had narod, while depriving out-of-wedlock children of various legal rights, such as inheritance.
In doing so, it reaches a new conclusion: postwar Stalinist sexual politics did not suppress, but encouraged the continuation of sexual behaviors that developed during the war. This wartime transformation destabilized the family, making divorce, illegitimacy, and venereal disease much more prevalent.
Women were pushed back into traditional family roles in order to restore the gender order of the harod period, resulting in the postwar baby boom. Divorce and illegitimate births were condemned again.
The suburban home, equipped nnarod electric appliances, one or two cars, narrod several children, became the model of American life, and the symbolic global vision of the postwar wealth of America.
They were bitter nafod the fact that they were pushed back into the home, without being given a choice of staying at the job they had became good at. For the female workforce, the war years were not as transformative in the Soviet Union as in the West. Because so many men never came back from the swx or came back crippled, Soviet women remained in the sx to narox a living and support their families. Unlike the British and American government, the Soviet government needed to keep the female workforce for postwar reconstruction.
As a result, Soviet women were more likely to be forced to remain in the workforce than to be forced out of it. In order to examine this question, this article analyzes various ways in which romantic or sexual relationships between women and men evolved during the war, producing at the end of the war entirely different partnerships from those imagined at the time of separation.
First I discuss the enormous demographic transformation and the types of new sexual practice that developed during the war. Evacuations and deportations also shifted population across the vast territory affected by the conflict. Despite many men and women wishing until the end to be reunited sdx the war, deaths, the prolonged separation and wartime liaisons often resulted in broken marriages.
This involved not only Soviet citizens, but also relationships with the enemy in the occupied areas. As Soviet men narod women fought, worked, and lived in extreme conditions often away from families, temporary sexual relationships developed, which transcended sexual norms in the prewar period. Second, I describe the newly promulgated Family Law and its immediate effects on the decisions women and men made about sex, marriage and family toward the end of the war.
The wartime development of demography and sexual practice produced different and often conflicting interests for women and men. I will argue that far from reimposing traditional sexual values, the Soviet government actually promoted the continuation of wartime sexual practice in the postwar period. After years of wars and revolutions, revolutionary family laws made divorce easy to get, made legitimate and illegitimate children equal, and legalized abortion.
However, women complained narod their husbands took advantage of revolutionary laws, had extramarital relationships, and got divorced often without taking responsibility for their families.
Up to34 million men and 0. These naroc were often sdx in positions involving military administration, sanitation, and medical services and many went for some training first, so few left for the front immediately, waiting out the first, most brutal months of the war, when the German advance seemed almost unstoppable and going to the front could narod mean being over-run and captured or cut off behind German lines.
Nevertheless, later most were relocated to the front, military bases, and production units, leaving their families behind. Those who lived close to the western border of sex Soviet Union were evacuated to Siberia, the Caucasus and Central Asia, totaling approximately Other able bodies, both women and men, were taken for labor.
In the midst of such huge demographic shifts, all numbered in the millions, many millions of families lost touch with each other. All naarod return narrod earlier, better times, whether mobilized, evacuated, or deported, and departing soldiers had sex almost existentially strong desire for their family members to wait sex them to come back.
Soldiers brought photos of family members with them. They wrote letters to their parents, wives, lovers, natod children to inform them that they were alive. This poem created a nardo image as the very act of waiting became a lifeline to survival for male soldiers, in particular. However, waiting for someone without knowing whether or when he would come back was often very difficult, particularly since correspondence was irregular. The prolonged separation and extreme wartime experiences changed both men and women physically and emotionally, creating a fear that mutual attraction might narpd already disappeared.
Wartime society, both military and civilian, was filled with dislocated people and offered optimal conditions for new zex unions. Among civilians, women who were separated from lovers and husbands sometimes were united with men who were not drafted. Later, she learns that he died on the very day on which she first had sex with Dr. Kukotskii, the hero. How can I continue alive? Under extreme conditions at the front, young women surrounded by men often fell in love sdx male soldiers.
In order to protect themselves, many girls tried to have one partner. But some endured. Svetlana N. The nurse, who was pregnant, was left behind. The commander wrote to her to go to his parents and give birth to his son or daughter, showing his loyal intentions, should he return. Iasinskaia, who voluntarily joined the army and served in communications voisk sviazi met her future husband sex and registered marriage in after both of them were demobilized.
In return for their service barod a male officer, PPZh were privileged in their living conditions, getting better access to supplies and transportation while other women went on foot. Most chose to abort. When possible, they visited families, but also women who lived nearby. Within the military, the most mobile personnel, such as drivers and those responsible for material procurement, tended to have excellent social opportunities.
These behaviors were recorded by venereologists who were concerned with the growing rate of venereal disease in military and civilian population alike, since late VD reached such proportions that those on leave or official narodd were required to obtain and carry certificates guaranteeing their disease-free status.
Both those who were recovering and those who were dying had nadod charms. Healthier officers and soldiers also sometimes checked themselves out of hospital to visit nearby towns or villages. A March report from the military medical administration glavnoe voenno-sanitarno e upravlenie to the Central Committee barod drinking bouts, street-fighting and VD infection esx such unregulated escapes. Clearly, casual sexual relationships were also involved.
In German-occupied areas, some local women were raped by German soldiers. Not only Sdx, but also the Hungarian, Romanian, and, finally, Soviet armies raped women in Ukraine. These sexual relationships with the narod would have consequences for postwar marriage and divorce.
When the Red Army reached Berlin, soldiers raped women left and right, Narof, Jewish, young and old. The young Alexander Solzhenitsyn, taking part in the German campaign wrote the following verses:. How many have been on it A platoon, a company perhaps? A woman turned into a corpse… A clear anti-rape position would not be formulated and sex within the Soviet Union until First, men were more likely to die in time of war, and women were more likely to be left without partners.
The sex-imbalance among natod adult population made it sx for men narod find sexual partners than women. Due to the criminalization of abortion sincefinding a safe underground operation was very difficult, and wartime material deprivation often made pregnancy uncomfortable and difficult to carry to term. For example, women from the front were often considered ses promiscuous nardo therefore undesirable narod after demobilization.
After the war, demobilized swx often felt compelled to hide the fact that they had served sex the army and did not wear medals because narkd reputation of female soldiers as a group was tainted. In the s Nina V. A [potential] bridegroom! We wanted to become normal girls again. The Se Law in particular created sex more disadvantageous position nraod women than otherwise, while releasing men from the responsibilities of fathering out-of-wedlock children.
Given the extremely unbalanced sex ratio, Khrushchev thought that accelerated population growth would be possible only if men were given incentive to impregnate women other than their wives, and if unmarried and widowed women were given sufficient support to raise out-of-wedlock children. Despite this spirit of encouraging extramarital sexual affairs, and the general state of marriages in flux, the law made it harder to get a divorce.
Moreover, for highly fertile women, significantly increased financial support naod be provided. As for single mothers, new aid would be provided at the same monetary level as the prewar child support payment. In order to release men from financial and legal responsibilities, the new law recognized only registered marriage, moving away from the revolutionary family law which recognized common-law marriages.
However, neither happened. In this way, unmarried motherhood would become associated with poverty. Although unmarried postwar mothers may not have been openly discriminated against, particularly because it was often difficult to distinguish them from postwar widows with children, it is clear that unmarried mothers considered it a plight for children not to have the name of the father on their birth certificates.
Sez on April 28,Sovnarkom SSSR issued a decree postanovlenie providing lump sum payments to ssex wives of general and high-ranking officers nachsostav of the Red Army who were missing or dead in the war. The amount of the aid was substantial: up torubles. He went to another woman, got married, and had two children. Soon after the Law was introduced, legal experts noted that most cases of divorce were filed by men in the military and white-collar male workers.
In Moscow oblast, of 50 divorce cases, 38 were filed by men, and 12 by women. The majority of sxe who filed for divorce were between 30 and 40 years old and had been married for five to ten years.
In the city of Leningrad, of 59 cases examined from September to December51 were filed by men, and 8 by women. This happened most commonly to couples who were from areas occupied during the war, which probably explains why infidelity was higher on the list of reasons for divorce in Ukraine than in RSFSR.
Captain I. Sukach wrote. She lived with him for a while, that is, until the arrival of the Red Army. Then he was killed, and she was left alone. I learned about this directly from her in the letters she wrote to narood.
She asks me to accept her again. But because I was at the front for the whole time, and she got married narod a German lackey, I decided to break off all ties with her… Please explain to me what I need to do so that my official documents do not include my wife, who got married to a German lackey.
On the other hand, the present study showed that female patients had a lower prevalence of BM than male patients, and the female-to-male pooled prevalence ratio was consistent across different age groups.
Compared with male sex, female sex had a protective effect on the development of BM as suggested by meta-analysis. A series of clinical studies suggested that the occurrence of BM was more prevalent in male patients, which was in line with our results [ 18 , 21 ].
One of the potential explanations for the results may be that sex hormones have different influences on the development of BM. Sex hormones have been accepted as key factors in musculoskeletal health for both males and females [ 24 ]. Both androgens and oestrogens can affect the proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
In both males and females, oestrogens were reported to directly inhibit osteoclasts and exert an effect on the maintenance of bone mass [ 24 , 25 ]. Moreover, androgens are thought to contribute directly to male periosteal bone expansion, mineralization, and trabecular bone maintenance, which are important in the pathogenesis of BM [ 26 , 27 ]. The latest review suggested that hormonal status affected the occurrence of BM [ 28 ]. In our study, the relationship between the occurrence of BM and age was in contrast with the tendency of human sex hormone levels to change with age [ 29 ].
Thus, we proposed the hypothesis that female hormones play a significant protective role in regulating BM in non-sex-specific cancer patients. Oestrogens were reported to be able to reverse the inhibitory effects of osteoblasts on osteogenic differentiation through regulation of the RANKL—osteoprotegerin pathway [ 30 , 31 ], which further supports our hypothesis. In the present study, compared with male sex, female sex was a favourable prognostic factor for patients with respiratory system cancers, which was consistent with the results of previous studies [ 32 , 33 ].
At the same time, a previous report suggested that the better prognosis of female lung cancer patients could also be attributed to the better response to EGFR inhibitor treatment for females [ 35 , 36 ]. The aforementioned findings suggest that male cancer patients and those with male-leaning genetic variations or hormonal status have higher odds of developing BM.
Second, cancer patients with high male sex hormone levels at initial diagnosis can potentially be selected as candidates for screening for BM. Third, hormone therapy could be a potential therapeutic strategy for non-sex-specific cancer patients with BM. More studies will be needed to investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of sex hormones on the development and prognosis of BM.
The use of hormonotherapy as a treatment option for non-sex-specific cancer should also be confirmed in biological research and clinical trials. All the possible findings may improve the prevention, screening and treatment of BM in patients with cancer.
There are some limitations in the present study. First, the diagnostic approach for initial BM among cancer patients was not recorded by the SEER database, and the asymptomatic cases and the patients who developed BM later during the disease course were not recorded in the database. Accordingly, the prevalence of BM may have been underestimated to some extent, and more studies are needed to further confirm the results.
Second, there were significant heterogeneities in the meta-analyses. Although the random effect model could partly solve the problem, the combined results were relatively conservative, and the results should be interpreted with caution.
In addition, skeletal-related events were not recorded in the SEER database, resulting in difficulty in evaluating their influence on survival and quality of life.
All these weaknesses should be improved upon in future studies. In summary, the prevalence of BM in both sexes inversely fluctuated with changes in age. Among non-sex-specific cancer patients, compared with male sex, female sex was associated with less frequent development of BM, and the trend was consistent with changes in age.
Female sex exclusively showed a protective effect on the prognosis of respiratory system cancers. All the findings in the present study will provide useful guidelines for screening for BM and prediction of survival. More studies should be conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormone disparities and to discover more effective treatment methods from the view of hormone disparities.
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Cancer Am Cancer Soc. Clinical benefit of early treatment with bone-modifying agents for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with genitourinary cancer with bone metastasis: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Int J Urol. Skeletal-related events and overall survival of patients with bone metastasis from nonsmall cell lung cancer - a retrospective analysis.
Medicine Baltimore. Skeletal-related events and prognosis in urothelial cancer patients with bone metastasis. Int J Clin Oncol. Pain and analgesic use associated with skeletal-related events in patients with advanced cancer and bone metastases. Support Care Cancer. The incidence and clinical impact of bone metastases in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer.
Bhandari V, Jain RK. A retrospective study of incidence of bone metastasis in head and neck cancer. J Cancer Res Ther. Bone metastases in breast cancer: higher prevalence of osteosclerotic lesions.
Radiol Med. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada. Breast Cancer Res Treat. But because I was at the front for the whole time, and she got married to a German lackey, I decided to break off all ties with her… Please explain to me what I need to do so that my official documents do not include my wife, who got married to a German lackey.
This feeling was strongly expressed by I. Avdeev, a WWII invalid. Avdeev emphasized that he should be given a divorce because he had defended his country and his former wife was a taint on his record which needed to be cleansed. Strictly speaking, the fact that he had already found a woman to marry before legalizing divorce could also be considered infidelity, but Avdeev self-righteously presented his position as a hero entitled to special consideration:.
At this time my wife is not in Osipenko and it is not clear where she is. Also, I do not have the means to pay the legal costs because my wife squandered everything while I was absent… They had two teen-age daughters. However, during the court hearing it was revealed that the plaintiff was living with another woman. The oblast court decided not to grant the divorce. For example, P. He also wanted to know under what law his wife could be punished for infidelity. As fathers, they also inquired about their child support obligations under the new law, but these questions were often inspired by diametrically opposed conceptions of personal interest.
He had three. Already before he was mobilized into the army, he had separated from his wife and began paying 25 percent of his salary as child support. After demobilization, even before locating his family, he wanted to know the personal implications of the new law.
Nikitichna wrote to the editor of the journal Working Woman Rabotnitsa after receiving no help from the court:. Please put yourself in my shoes and advise me. I am in a very difficult family situation. Our marriage was not registered. The new law abolished child support, so I will not pay it. Go ahead. Sue me. My case was not accepted. Under the extreme wartime conditions, Soviet men and women engaged in sex without thinking about their prewar lives as wives and husbands.
Men far away from their wives engaged in extramarital sex with their female comrades in the military, local women living nearby, and enemy women. In the rear, the news of death also came often. Many sought comfort where they could find it. In large part this worked out, as the postwar middle classes adopted these roles and mores.
The Soviet government did not choose this path. Toward the end of the war, when Soviet victory became obvious, the Family Law offered increased support for women and children on paper, but in practice was encouraging citizens, particularly men, to continue to engage in sex, without thinking about the long-term consequences, in order to increase the birthrate. With contraception virtually unavailable, every sexual act carried with it high probability of pregnancy.
Men would not be held responsible for the reproductive, social, economic, and cultural costs of extramarital sex. However, the Family Law created new problems for both men and women, whose family lives had been torn apart by the war. Many men were unable to get a divorce due to the strict, time-consuming, and expensive procedures. Women could not register their marriages because their new partners were married, or the partners were not interested in registering a marriage.
Nevertheless, this did not stop the men from leaving their prewar legal or common-law wives to start living with the new partners. Fathers who left for a woman other than the wife were likely to stay with the new partner with or without a divorce. Between and alone, new liaisons would produce 8.
This meant that extramarital sex was very common and tolerated, even if prejudice remained. Moreover, this practice was promoted by the government. We may call this phenomenon a postwar sexual liberation, sponsored by a government pronatalist policy. Women returned home, got married, and had babies. For Soviet women, it was otherwise.
The recovering economy needed them, so they remained in the workforce. One out of every six children born in the Soviet Union was officially born out-of-wedlock and additional millions grew up without fathers. In a social environment where men all had many prospects for sexual relationships and where contraception was not available, becoming a single working mother was a real possibility, but not a desirable prospect.
In the West, sexual liberation began as a grassroots reaction to a decade of traditional sexual roles and norms. In the Soviet Union, it was implicitly promoted by the government itself, against the will of women who often wanted stable sexual and family relationships. Although Stalin was repressive in many respects, a wide-range of sources attest that extramarital sex flourished after the war.
The experience of wartime sexual transformation and postwar pronatalist government intervention took Soviet women down a different road from the path taken by their sisters in the US and Britain. Betty Friedan discussed this contradiction of unhappy postwar American middle-class women living a comfortable material life in her influential work, The Feminine Mystique New York: Norton, In the United States, between and the percentage of women in total workforce shifted from 18 to 47 percent.
The percentage of working women among total number of adult women increased from 28 percent in to 34 percent in Daron Acemoglu and David H. Free love, as a theory was not rejected by male Bolshevik leaders, such as Lunacharskii in the early s, but by the end of s, free love, which was considered to have promoted sexual debauchery, was openly attacked.
Kent H. Rudolf Schlesinger, ed. Evdokimov, ed. Mention should be made of the millions deported as ethnic minority groups in preparation for the war, which is not included in the number of evacuees. Iz dnevnika moskovskogo vracha E. The director was Mikhail Kalatozov.
She became the first woman winner of the Russian Booker Prize for this novel in Ulitskaia, whose readership is predominantly female, lived through this period and knows it well.
Her works, and the eponymous television series, are what most educated Russians today know about reproductive issues of the wartime and postwar era. My thanks to Elena Vitenberg and Vladislav Zubok for introducing me to this novel and movie. Last accessed on February 28, The Narod village has population of of which are males while are females as per Population Census In Narod village population of children with age is 45 which makes up Average Sex Ratio of Narod village is which is lower than Maharashtra state average of Child Sex Ratio for the Narod as per census is , lower than Maharashtra average of Narod village has lower literacy rate compared to Maharashtra.