Europe Information on item, 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 A sexual fantasy or erotic fantasy is a mental image or pattern of thought that stirs a person's an Evolutionary Psychological Approach", The Journal of Sex Research, 27 (4): –, doi/, JSTOR . Firestone, Shulamith, , First Amendment, , , , , , First Love—A Young People's Guide to Sexual Information, First Sex.
L. 95 - , 92 Stat. () Authority: § (b), 78 Stat. , 42 U.S.C. e - Source: 37 FR , April 5, , unless otherwise noted. Page . Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act, Seton, , sex rings, Sex Satisfaction and Happy Marriage, Sex Shop. Écoutez TSRP # Sex Magic par Ear Goggles with Jeremy Aaron and Stacy instantanément sur votre tablette, téléphone ou navigateur, sans téléchargement.
Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act, Seton, , sex rings, Sex Satisfaction and Happy Marriage, Sex Shop. Europe Information on item, 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 L. 95 - , 92 Stat. () Authority: § (b), 78 Stat. , 42 U.S.C. e - Source: 37 FR , April 5, , unless otherwise noted. Page .
Jump to Content Jump to Resources. Menu Menu Close Search. This course explores philosophical issues 555 love, sex, and friendship. Is romantic 555 a form of madness? Plato said so, and it can feel that way to those in the throes of passion.
If true, it would sex that love is irrational. It can neither be 555 nor justified. Is this right, or are there reasons for sex What is love? Is it an emotion, a complex set of emotions, an attitude, a set of dispositions to behave in certain ways toward the beloved, or something else? Sxe so, does this mean that love sex in jeopardy when the beloved changes?
How does the property view explain the fact that many sex remain in love even after their properties change over time and that parental love often persists despite unpleasant changes? But if that is right, how do 555 explain how people fall in sex or out of love?
Erotic love sex issues in offspring. Is romantic love always beneficial to the lovers? Or does nature use us, as Schopenhauer claims, to perpetuate the 555 Other subtopics on love may include exclusivity monogamypolyamory, jealousy, betrayal, 555 self-love.
How has loved changed in the era of cyber-dating? The other main topic of the course will be the philosophy of human sexuality. What makes some acts sexual and others not? Or are certain acts se sexual and others intrinsically non-sexual? How does sexual desire compare to other sorts of desires e. This fact makes it difficult to define sexual desire.
Traditionally, 555 sexual practices and desires have been regarded as perverse and therefore immoral because they subvert the goal of sex: namely, procreation. If this is correct, then everything from oral sex to masturbation is perverted—practices that many people believe are natural. But does sex even have a goal or function? If so, is there one or many goals?
Are these goals malleable or given by God or human nature? If some sexual practices and desires are perverse, what makes them so?
Some philosophers have argued that sex is a form of communication and that sexx perversion is a form of failed communication. Others have sxe that perversion is merely a statistical notion: perverse acts are sex those in marginal minorities.
We will study various theories on this topic and also discuss the relation between sex and love. Finally, there has been a lot of recent research on human sexuality in connection with evolutionary psychology that makes several surprising claims. We will discuss the philosophical implications of sex research. We will read a variety of sources and watch at least one film. Frequent class participation will be strongly encouraged. It is your responsibility 555 determine whether this is the right course for you.
Course requirements will include at least two take-home 555 and a final exam. I welcome inquiries about the course: Lawrence. Nolan csulb. BeachBoard 49er Shops Email. Diversity Schedule of Classes Careers.
They can be used by someone on their own, with partnered sex, or group sex. They can be exciting and provide new types of stimulation that the body cannot produce, such as vibrations. Sex toys have been used as a source of sexual stimulation for thousands of years.
There have been dildos found from the Palaeolithic era ,  made of Siltstone and polished to a high gloss.
Dildos were also made of camel dung and coated with resin. It is known that dildos were used for fertility rituals ,  however. The Ancient Greeks created their dildos from a carved penis covered in leather or animal intestines to create a more natural feel. Ancient Chinese dildos were made of bronze or other metals and some were hollow allowing them to be filled with liquid to simulate an ejaculation. In Persia, they thought that the blood of the hymen was unclean, and should be avoided by husbands.
On the night before a lady's wedding, a local holy-man would come and break her hymen with a large stone dildo, a ritual also used to confirm the virginity of the bride. There are many areas through which a person can be sexually stimulated, other than the genitals.
To name a few, the nipples, thighs, lips, and neck can all provide sexual stimulation when touched. Nipples : One study  administered a questionnaire about sexual activity to participants and found that Furthermore, Research using  brain-scanning technology found that stimulating nipples in women resulted in the activation of the genital area of the sensory cortex.
The research suggests the sensations are genital orgasms caused by nipple stimulation , and may also be directly linked to "the genital area of the brain".
Nipple stimulation may trigger uterine contractions, which then produce a sensation in the genital area of the brain. Thighs : In the California Institute of Technology  measured brain responses in heterosexual males as they were having their inner thighs touched whilst being MRI scanned. They were either watching a video of a woman touching their thigh or a man touching their thigh. They reported more sexual pleasure when they thought it was the woman touching them than the man, and this was reflected in their MRI scans with greater arousal of their somatosensory cortex.
It can be therefore concluded that the thighs are an area that can cause sexual stimulation when touched. Lips : Lips contain a huge number of nerve endings and are considered to be an erogenous zone. Men report experiencing more pleasure from the stimulation of their lips than women do see below for sex differences in stimulation. In addition to stimulation of the lips by touching, men can be visually stimulated by looking at a woman's lips.
It has also been  reported that men prefer women with fuller lips because they are an indicator of youth. Neck :  A sample of participants and rated 41 different body parts on their erogenous intensity on a scale of 10 being the most arousing. Females reported neck stimulation as being more arousing than men did. This table  shows the sex differences in erogenous zones and includes the top ten most arousing areas for both sexes.
Each body part was rated out of ten for how arousing it is when touched. Apart from body parts exclusive to one gender such as the penis or clitoris, many of the erogenous zones are similar and contain lots of nerve endings. They suggested also that women experience more areas of greater arousal than men do.
The excitation-transfer theory states that existing arousal in the body can be transformed into another type of arousal. For example, sometimes people can be sexually stimulated from residual arousal arising from something such as exercise, being transformed into another type of arousal such as sexual arousal.
In one study  participants performed some physical exercise and at different stages of recovery had to watch an erotic film and rate how aroused it made them feel. They found that participants who were still experiencing excitatory residues from the exercise rated the film as more arousing than those who had fully recovered from the exercise.
This suggests that the remaining arousal from the exercise was being transformed into sexual arousal without any external stimulation. The human sexual response is a dynamic combination of cognitive, emotional, and physiological processes. Whilst the most common forms of sexual stimulation discussed are fantasy or physical stimulation of the genitals and other erogenous areas, sexual arousal may also be mediated through alternative routes such as visual, olfactory and auditory means.
Perhaps the most researched non-tactile form of sexual stimulation is visual sexual stimulation. Although seen socio-historically as an unacceptable form of ' sexual deviation ', it highlights the human tendency to find sexual stimulation through purely visual routes. The multibillion-dollar industry that is pornography is another example. A common presumption in society and the media is that men respond more strongly to visual sexual stimuli than do women.
This is perhaps best exemplified by the Kinsey hypothesis that men are more prone to sexual arousal from visual stimulation than women  and, arguably, can be seen depicted through the "male gaze"  that dominates the pornography industry. Nonetheless, both sexes can be sexually aroused through visual stimulation. In one study, visual stimulation was tested by means of an erotic video.
Although significantly higher in the male group, sexual arousal was the main emotional reaction reported by both sexes. Their physiological responses to the video also showed characteristics of sexual arousal, such as increased urinary excretions of adrenaline.
Studies that use visual stimulation as a means for sexual stimulation find that sexual arousal is predominantly correlated with an activation in limbic and paralimbic cortex and in subcortical structures, along with a deactivation in several parts of the temporal cortex. These same areas are activated during physical sexual stimulation highlighting how powerful visual stimulation can be as a means of sexual arousal. Olfactory information is critical to human sexual behavior.
One study investigating olfactory sexual stimulation found that men experience sexual arousal in response to a female perfume. Individuals rated odourant stimulation and perceived sexual arousal. They also had functional MRI scans taken during the experiment.
The results showed that olfactory stimulation with women's perfume produces activation of specific brain areas associated with sexual arousal in men. Evolutionary analysis of sex differences in reproductive strategies can help explain the importance of smell in sexual arousal due to its link to immunological profile and offspring viability. In one study, males rated visual and olfactory information as being equally important for selecting a lover, while females considered olfactory information to be the single most important variable in mate choice.
Additionally, when considering sexual activity, females singled out body odour from all other sensory experiences as most able to negatively affect desire.
Auditory stimulants may also serve to intensify sexual arousal and the experience of pleasure. Making sounds during sexual arousal and sexual activity is widespread among primates and humans. These include sighs, moans, strong expirations and inspirations, increased breathing rate and occasionally, at orgasm, screams of ecstasy. Many of these sounds are highly exciting to men and women, and act as strong reinforcers of sexual arousal, creating a powerful positive feedback effect. Even when not coupled with "touching", sounds can be highly sexually arousing.
Commercial erotic material mainly produced for the male market uses such sounds extensively. As early as the s and 30s, several genres of singers turned to "low moans" for erotic effect.
Vaudeville Jazz singers often incorporated sex sounds into the narrative of the lyrics. In one mood induction study, exposure to certain music resulted in significantly greater penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal for men. Whilst the highest levels of physiological and subjective arousal were found for visual stimuli, spoken-text was found to elicit sexual arousal in men, implicating sounds as a means of sexual stimulation. Sexual arousal includes feelings, attractions and desires, as well as physiological changes.
Sexual fantasy is a form of mental sexual stimulation which many people engage in. Fantasy has less social or safety limits than in real life situations. It gives people more freedom to experiment or think of things they could not necessarily try in real life and can be anything from imagining your spouse naked, to imagining a sexual experience with a mythical creature.
Common sexual fantasies include imagining activities with a loved partner, reliving past experiences and experiences with multiple partners of the opposite gender. It is useful for research because it makes differences between male and female heterosexual preferences clearer than studies of behaviour. Many sexual fantasies are shared between men and women, possibly because of cultural influence.
Men are more likely than women to imagine being in a dominant or active role, whereas women are more likely to imagine themselves as passive participants. Women have a higher minimum parental investment than males they have 9 months of gestation prior birth and are then the main care givers, whereas men only have to provide sperm to ensure their genes are passed on and are therefore more likely to want commitment from their partner in order to gain resources to improve their offspring's chance of survival.
Fantasies can have benefits, such as increasing arousal more than other forms of sexual stimuli such as an erotic story and increasing sexual desire. However, whether people are willing to open up to their partner generally depends on the content of such fantasies. Nocturnal orgasms, or " wet dreams " are when men ejaculate during sleep. These occur during REM rapid eye movement phases of sleep,  which is the main stage when humans dream.
Sexual role-play is when people act out characters or scenarios which may sexually stimulate each other. This can include fantasies discussed above and fetishes , such as BDSM bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism and masochism or age-play. During sexual contact, some people can use their fantasies to "turn off" undesirable aspects of an act.
Many couples share their fantasies to feel closer and gain more intimacy and trust, or simply to become more aroused or effect a more powerful physical response. Fantasies may also be used as a part of sex therapy. They can enhance insufficiently exciting sexual acts to promote higher levels of sexual arousal and release. A study that looked at married women indicated that sexual fantasies helped them achieve arousal and orgasm. The incidence of sexual fantasies is nearly universal,  but vary by gender, age, sexual orientation, and society.
However, because of a reliance on retrospective recall, as well as response bias and taboo , there is an inherent difficulty in measuring the frequency of types of fantasies.
According to a United States survey, the incidence of certain fantasies is higher than the actual performance. The sexes have been found to contrast with respect to where their fantasies originate from. Men tend to fantasize about past sexual experiences, whereas women are more likely to conjure an imaginary lover or sexual encounter that they have not experienced previously.
On the other hand, women's fantasies tend to be more focused upon mental sexual stimulation and contain more emotion and connection. Much research has been conducted which has highlighted several gender differences in sexual fantasies. Some of the patterns which have frequently emerged include men's greater tendency to report sexual fantasies falling in the following categories: exploratory, intimate, impersonal, and sadomasochism.
Women are also likely to report fantasies involving the same-sex partner, or those with a famous person,  although both sexes have been found to prefer intimate fantasies over the other three types outlined, including fantasies of oral sex and sex outdoors. Another way the sexes differ is that men are much more likely to fantasize about having multiple sexual partners i.
The sexes also differ in terms of how much they fantasize about dominance and submission. Men fantasize equally often about dominance and submission, whereas women fantasize about submission more frequently than dominance. Sexual fantasies may instead vary as a result of individual differences, such as personality or learning experiences, and not gender per se.
The age of first experiencing a sexual fantasy has also been found to differ between the sexes. Males are likely to report this at a younger age, typically between the years of 11 and 13,  and describe these as being more explicit in content.
For instance, younger men have been found to endorse more fantasies with multiple partners, a trend which declines with age, whilst homosexual fantasies increase slightly. Meanwhile, for women, fantasies with strangers and same-sex partners remain relatively stable across the lifespan.
Sex differences have also been found with regard to paraphilic fantasies i. Examples of paraphilic sexual fantasies include incest , voyeurism , transvestic fetishism , sex with animals see zoophilia , and pedophilia.
Unusual sexual fantasies are more common in men, with fantasies of urinating on their sexual partner and being urinated on being significantly higher among males. Paraphilic sexual fantasies in females include sexual sadism, exhibitionism , and pedophilia. Sexual fantasies may be more likely to be executed in contemporary society due to more liberalized attitudes towards the previously taboo topic of sex, and increased awareness of the variety of sexual experiences that now exist.
Since numerous variables influence sexual fantasy, the differences between gender can be examined through multiple theoretical frameworks. Social constructionism predicts that sexual socialisation is a strong predictor of sexual fantasy and that gender differences are the result of social influences.
A social constructionist explanation may say that this is because women are raised to be chaste and selective with men, whereas evolutionary theory may state that ancestral women preferred the reproductive security of having one partner, such that being faithful to him will result in a greater likelihood of him investing resources in her and her offspring, an idea which is still ingrained in modern women today.
The theory suggests that this mating strategy may have been advantageous for our female ancestors, such that affiliation with a high status male increases offspring survival rate via protection and provision. In , Masters and Johnson carried out one of the first studies on sexual fantasy in homosexual men and women, though their data-collection method is unclear. Their sample consisted of 30 gay men and lesbians, and they found that the five most common fantasies for homosexual men were images of sexual anatomy primarily the penis and buttocks , forced sexual encounters, an idyllic setting for sex, group sex, and sex with women.
A study found that homosexual men preferred unspecified sexual activity with other men, oral sex, and sex with another man not previously involved. In both studies, homosexual and heterosexual men shared similar fantasies, but with genders switched. It found that when compared to heterosexual male fantasies, homosexual males were more focused on exploratory, intimate, and impersonal fantasies. There were no differences in sadomasochistic fantasies.
In general, there was little difference in the top fantasies of homosexual versus heterosexual males. At the time of the study, homosexuality was illegal. A study compared heterosexual and homosexual women in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and found some differences in the content of their fantasies. In gender-specific findings, homosexual women had more fantasies about specific parts of a woman face, breasts, clitoris, vagina, buttocks, arms or hair , while heterosexual women had more fantasies about specific parts of a man's body face, penis, buttocks, arms or hair.
Homosexual women also had more fantasies of "delighting many women"; there was no significant difference when subjects were asked if they fantasized about delighting many men. There was no significant difference in responses to questions that were not gender-specific. Rape or ravishment is a common sexual fantasy among both men and women, either generically or as an ingredient in a particular sexual scenario. Some studies have found that women tend to fantasize about being forced into sex more commonly than men.
Other studies have found the theme, but with lower frequency and popularity. However, these female fantasies in no way imply that the subject desires to be raped in reality—the fantasies often contain romantic images where the woman imagines herself being seduced , and the male that she imagines is desirable. Most importantly, the woman remains in full control of her fantasy.
The fantasies do not usually involve the woman getting hurt. Conversely, some women who have been sexually victimized in the past report unwanted sexual fantasies, similar to flashbacks of their victimization. They are realistic, and the woman may recall the physical and psychological pain involved. The most frequently cited hypothesis for why women fantasize of being forced into some sexual activity is that the fantasy avoids societally induced guilt—the woman does not have to admit responsibility for her sexual desires and behavior.
A study by Moreault and Follingstad was consistent with this hypothesis, and found that women with high levels of sex guilt were more likely to report fantasy themed around being overpowered, dominated, and helpless. In contrast, Pelletier and Herold used a different measure of guilt and found no correlation. Other research suggests that women who report forced sex fantasies have a more positive attitude towards sexuality, contradicting the guilt hypothesis.
Additionally, it said that force fantasies are clearly not the most common or the most frequent. Social views on sexual fantasy and sex in general differ throughout the world. The privacy of a person's fantasy is influenced greatly by social conditions. Because of the taboo status of sexual fantasies in many places around the world, open discussion—or even acknowledgment—is forbidden, forcing fantasies to stay private.
In more lax conditions, a person may share their fantasies with close friends, significant others, or a group of people with whom the person is comfortable. The moral acceptance and formal study of sexual fantasy in Western culture is relatively new. Prior to their acceptance, sexual fantasies were seen as evil or sinful, and they were commonly seen as horrid thoughts planted into the minds of people by "agents of the devil".
Sigmund Freud suggested that those who experienced sexual fantasies were sexually deprived or frustrated or that they lacked adequate sexual stimulation and satisfaction. Others believe that St Paul includes fantasy when he condemns works of the flesh such as "immorality" or "uncleanness".
Despite the Western World's relatively lax attitudes towards sexual fantasy, many people still feel shame and guilt about their fantasies. This may contribute to personal sexual dysfunction ,  and regularly leads to a decline in the quality of a couple's sex life. While most people do not feel guilt or disgust about their sexual thoughts or fantasies, a substantial number do. In general, men and women are equally represented in samples of those who felt guilt about their fantasies.
The most notable exception was found in a study that showed that women felt more guilt and disgust about their first sexual fantasies. In women, greater guilt about sex was associated with less frequent and less varied sexual fantasies, and in men, it was associated with less sexual arousal during fantasies. Studies have also been carried out to examine the direct connection between guilt and sexual fantasy, as opposed to sex and guilt.
Studies that examined guilt about sexual fantasy by age have unclear results—Knoth et al. A study examined guilt and jealousy in American heterosexual married couples. It associated guilt with an individual's fantasy " How guilty do you feel when you fantasize about Higher levels of guilt were found among women, couples in the 21—29 age range, shorter relationships and marriages, Republicans , and Roman Catholics ; lower levels in men, couples in the 41—76 range, longer relationships, Democrats , and Jews.
Higher levels of jealousy were found in women, couples in the 21—29 range, Roman Catholics and non-Jewish religious affiliations; lower levels were found in men, couples in the 41—76 range, and Jews and the non-religious. Deviant sexual fantasies are sexual fantasies which involve illegal, nonconsensual, and sadistic themes. It is based on factors like history, society, culture and politics. When a study used statistical analysis and the Wilson sex fantasy questionnaire to investigate atypical fantasies, having zoophilllic or pedophillic fantasies were found to be rare and only 7 themes including urination, crossdressing , rape etc.
Most research into sexual crimes involve men. Sexual crimes such as sexual homicides are quite rare  because most deviant sexual fantasizers never engaged in deviant sexual behaviors  and are not at risk of engaging in sexual crimes. Deviant and sadistic sexual fantasies are believed to be the underlying risk factors for sexual crimes.
Other risk factors that contribute to the likelihood of sex crimes include biological, physiological and psychological factors like mental disorders especially paranoia and psychosis ; violent history, arrests, poor academic performance,  substance abuse , financial gain,   unemployment, and watching pornography.
For example, most rapists report both early traumatic experiences and sexually deviant fantasies   and sex murders of children reported a significantly more pre-crime childhood sexual abuse and deviant sexual fantasies than sexual murderers of women.
Sadistic themes are consistently present in the sexual fantasies of offenders across various types of sexual crimes and varying risk factors. They occur in high prevalence alongside other paraphilic fantasies in psychopaths and individuals with dark triad traits.
The capitalization of the Fifty Shades trilogy changed the perception of BDSM from being extreme, marginalized and dangerous to being fun fashionable and exciting. Sadistic sexual fantasy is one of the key factors for understanding serial killers. A lot of sexual homicides are well planned  due to extensive practice in form of sexual fantasies. Childhood abuse plays a significant role in determining if sadistic fantasies will be tried out in real life.
These manifestations then cause uncontrollable desires to act out one's fantasy in order to find relief. Researchers found that the sadistic contents in fantasies began appearing about 1—7 years after the start of masturbation. Some studies suggest that deviant sexual scripts might be learnt through social learning theory due to an early exposure via sexual molestation and reinforcements by orgasms and masturbation.
MacCulloch and colleagues  have suggested that the early traumatic experiences cause the early development of sadistic fantasies through sensory preconditioning and this might be the reason offenders find it too difficult to restrain themselves from trying out their sadistic fantasies in real life.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about psychological fantasies. For written fantasy, see Erotic literature. Psychological Bulletin. ES; Abdelrasoul, G Structure and functions of fantasy. Day dreaming. The liberation of sexual fantasy. Psychol Today.