sinope.info › pubmed. Parental sex-role attitudes (i.e., sex-role ideology, self-perceptions of masculinity and femininity and stereotyping) were examined in relation to the parental. Here to give you an idea of what's what now that you have parent sex instead of sex sex are. The RULES of parent sex: Rule 1: You do not talk about having.
sinope.info › pubmed. Parental sex-role attitudes (i.e., sex-role ideology, self-perceptions of masculinity and femininity and stereotyping) were examined in relation to the parental. Pediatr Emerg Care. Apr;27(4) doi: /PEC.0be Parental sex and age: their effect on pain assessment of young children.
Here to give you an idea of what's what now that you have parent sex instead of sex sex are. The RULES of parent sex: Rule 1: You do not talk about having. J Fam Issues. Sep;8(3) Effects of children on parental sex-role orientation. Ganong LH, Coleman M. The predominant theories of gender-role. This paper formulates a stochastic dynamic model of fertility to evaluate the assumptions that underlie the widely used econometric tests for parental sex.
Metrics details. Physical activity PA is important in combating childhood obesity. Parents, and thus parental PA, could influence PA in young children. Maternal PA was significantly related to PA in girls, but parental boys. In fathers, PA levels were predominantly related to PA in sons. Higher PA in mothers, for instance in leisure activities, is related to higher PA in daughters, and more active fathers are related to more parrental sons.
To support PA in young children, interventions could focus on the PA of the sex of the same sex as the child. Special attention may be needed for families where the parents have sedentary jobs, as children from these families seem to adopt more sedentary behaviour.
Overweight and obesity is a growing problem in children. According to the World Health Organization, more than 42 million children aged under five were estimated to be overweight worldwide in [ 1 ], an increase from 4.
This prevalence is expected to be 9. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight sex obese children are four times as likely to be overweight in adulthood, resulting in increased healthcare costs [ 345 ] and an increased risk of developing health problems such as diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers later in life [ 56 ].
Overweight and obesity are a consequence of a disturbed energy balance [ 7 ]. An important energy balance-related behaviour in addition to diet, is daily physical activity PA [ 8 ].
A lack of sex exercise and PA in young children are related to higher body mass index BMI [ 9 ], greater skinfold thickness [ 910 ], greater fat mass [ 11 ] and obesity status [ 121314 ]. To prevent future overweight in children, the determinants of their PA levels should be considered by looking at all aspects of their ecological system, including any obesogenic conditions. The ecological system closest to a child is the microsystem, which includes family, peers, school, health services paretnal religious groups [ 15 ], with parents as important socializing agents [ 16 ].
Parents strongly determine the social and physical environment of their young children [ 17 ]. Several sex have focused on the specific relationship between PA levels in parents and the PA levels of their children.
One review found little evidence to support the hypothesis that higher PA levels in parents are associated with higher PA levels in children [ 24 padental. Another review showed a mixed pattern of associations between the PA levels of parents and those of their children. Six paarental the studies that were included confirmed an association, while seven studies found a weak or no association [ 23 ].
These mixed findings might be due to heterogeneity in study parental with regard to the number and age ranges of participants, geographical location and the methods used to assess PA. Assessing PA is particularly difficult in young children. Their activity patterns are less structured than the PA habits of adults, and characterized by relatively short bouts of spontaneous, intense PA [ 2526 ]. This spontaneous behaviour in children is difficult to summarize and report by observation, so questionnaires or parental reports are prone to measurement error [ 27 ].
Objective measurements, for example with tri-axial accelerometers, are likely to capture all movements [ 2829 ]. The aim of this study was to examine whether the time spent at different intensities of PA and the type of parental PA are associated with objectively measured daily PA of their 4 to 7-year old offspring.
Since other studies previously found that the relationship between the PA of parents and their children depended on sex [ 3031 ], we specifically analysed the associations in child-parent pairs: mothers and daughters, mothers and sons, fathers and sons, and fathers and daughters.
We hypothesized that children with more active parents are more physically active, compared to children with less active parents. The GECKO Drenthe study is a population-based birth cohort studying early risk factors for overweight and obesity in children sex in Drenthe, a northern province of the Netherlands.
Parents and their babies born between 1 April and 1 April in Srx were recruited for the study. Details of the study design, recruitment and study procedures are described in detail elsewhere [ 32 ]. At baseline, the parents of children consented to participate, of whom actively participated in the study.
Height and weight were measured by trained youth healthcare nurses at age six years during a regular check-up. The overweight and obesity of children was classified according to the cut-offs of Cole et al. The height and weight of the parents were self-reported in questionnaires.
Adult overweight was defined as BMI between 25 sex Written informed consent was obtained from parents and this study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen in accordance to the Declaration of Helsinki, as amended in Between andfamilies were contacted individually by research assistants to obtain data from parents and children simultaneously. The correlations between observed and ActiGraph intensity categorizations in young children ranged from 0.
The ActiGraph device was worn by the child with an elastic belt. Parents were instructed to let their child wear the ActiGraph on the iliac crest on the right hip for four consecutive days, including at least one weekend day, during all waking hours except when bathing or swimming [ 3738 ]. The cut-off points recommended by Butte et al. The data collected were analysed in s epochs [ 41 ]. Parental PA was assessed by the validated SQUASH Pardntal QUestionnaire to ASsess Health enhancing physical activity [ 43 parentap questionnaire, as self-reporting remains the most feasible and commonly used method for collecting data in large populations [ 44 ].
High-intensity activities are more reliable than low-intensity activities [ 43 ]. The SQUASH registers habitual physical activities and is pre-structured into four main domains: a commuting activities, b activities at work or school, c household activities, and d leisure time activities including sports. For PA at work, parents reported the parentsl of hours in light and moderate PA seated and standing work, such as office work and the number of hours in vigorous PA such as carrying heavy loads.
The total PA in minutes sed week was calculated and the outcomes were classified as time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA, as well as the time spent in different types of PA, which were commuting, leisure time, sports, household parehtal, and time spent in physical activities at work or school, according to Wendel-Vos et al.
Data for household activities were not analysed because they showed too much variation and were therefor considered less reliable [ 40 ]. Activities at work are conducted without children around and therefore no meaningful associations can be parental. The data cleaning was recorded and audited by a second investigator.
If the investigators were unable to reach a consensus, a third researcher padental consulted. Flowchart of the participants. The data are presented as means with standard deviations, as rates in N and percentages, or if the data were skewed, as the median of the 25th and 75th percentiles.
As most PA variables were more or less skewed, Spearman correlations were used to assess the associations between parental and child PA at different intensities. Since parental influence can be modified by education level, and both parental and child activities may be influenced by income level, education and income were investigated as potential modifiers in linear regression parental. Dependent skewed variables were ln-transformed for linear regression.
The influence of gender was investigated by stratification. Finally, analysis was parental to establish whether the children in families with two active parents were more active than parental in families with inactive parents.
For this, the parents were stratified into gender-specific tertiles sex on MVPA and then regrouped into three categories: two parenttal sex both highest tertiletwo inactive parents both lowest tertile and all other combinations.
The graphs were prepared using GraphPad Prism 5. The parents of children were contacted and PA measurements of children, mothers and fathers were collected. As shown in Fig. Data from both parents were available for of these children.
The children were aged between 4. Age and BMI were comparable for boys and girls, and the boys were more active than the se. Sex total PA TPA data of the children included in the analyses were comparable to data of the children who were excluded for lack of parental data.
With respect to the type of activities, we found that the children of mothers with higher leisure time PA had higher MVPA levels and less sedentary time. This sedentary behaviour in children was also related to more sports activity in mothers, but also to more active commuting time in mothers. No associations were found regarding total PA. In contrast, higher levels of light PA in fathers correlated with lower levels of MVPA in sons, and reciprocally also with more time in sedentary behaviours in sons, but not in daughters.
Comparing families with two active parents, families with one active parent and families with two inactive parents, no other associations praental found for PA in children than those already paarental data not shown.
We hypothesized that more active fathers would have more active children, and thus, that fathers with more time spent in light PA would have be positively association with more time spent in higher intensities of activity in children. A positive association between light PA of the father and sedentary time of the son was parental unexpected finding.
We subjected this latter finding to further study, and especially aimed parental understand the nature of the light PA of the father. Since this type of work may be related to a higher socioeconomic position of the family, we studied the effects of family income and parental education level on the associations between parental PA and child PA.
No direct effect of income was pparental on the association between paternal LPA and sedentary time in sons model 2, Table 4. These findings support the hypothesis that higher levels of more intense PA in parents are associated with parntal levels of more intense PA in children, and support a modelling role of parents in the PA levels of their children that is sex-specific.
Furthermore, higher levels of active commuting in mothers were associated with more sedentary time in daughters, and higher levels of LPA in fathers were associated with more sedentary time in sons. This latter association could be fully explained by the education level of the fathers, sed that children from families where the parents parentaal sedentary jobs seem to adopt more sedentary behaviour, as well.
Parental many studies have been published on the association between parental PA and child PA, few used objective measurements e. Some studies used accelerometry only in children [ 45464748 ] and two studies also used accelerometry in parebtal [ 4950 ].
Most previous studies support the idea sex the PA level of parents is associated with the PA of preschoolers [ 45495051 ]. Two studies showed no clear association with parental PA, which could be explained by their use of parental PA rather parental objectively measured PA, or differences in socioeconomic status [ 4647 ].
A more recent study by Jago et al. Other PA intensities were not reported. Considering boys and girls together, maternal PA was more often and more significantly associated with PA and sedentary behaviour, compared to paternal PA.
Previously, Taylor et al. Sallis et al. Active fathers had active sons. Sex, Vollmer et al. In addition, and more unexpectedly, we found that paternal LPA had a significant positive correlation with sedentary time and an inverse association with the MVPA of boys. Accordingly, doing seated office work was counted as time parsntal in LPA, while it was actually time spent in sedentary time.
Here, low paternal LPA was correlated with lower offspring sedentary time. Father-child associations using objectively measured sedentary time show mixed findings [ 525758 ].
Fathers with lower LPA in our study were younger, had parental incomes and education levels, did less housework sex had higher BMI data not presented. Although children with higher income parents are presumed to have healthier lifestyles [ 59 ], fathers and sons with lower SES may not necessarily be less active because SES is unrelated to PA in pre-schoolers and school-aged children [ 60 ] but is related to sedentary time [ 52 ].
A Nature Research Journal. The proportion of male to female births increases during and shortly after periods of war 1 , 2. We also find that in England and Wales, the mean spouse age difference increased during and immediately after the two World Wars and was strongly correlated with the sex ratio during the period Martin, W.
Lancet 1 , MacMahon, B. Bromwich, P. Clutton-Brock, T. Kenrick, D. Brain Sci. Mueller, U. Download references. Reprints and Permissions. Manning, J. Parental age gap skews child sex ratio. Nature , doi Download citation. Theriogenology Radiation and Environmental Biophysics Since January 1, , this law requires public school districts to ensure that all pupils in grades seven to twelve, inclusive, receive comprehensive sexual health education and HIV prevention education.
The law requires that sexual education instruction and HIV prevention education include information about abstinence as the only sure-fire way to avoid STDs and pregnancy. Under the California Healthy Youth Act , the school must inform parents a minimum of 14 days in advance about planned sexual education and HIV prevention instruction.
Parents have the right to review the materials the school uses. Parents also have the right to excuse their children from some or all of any instruction discussing human reproductive organs.
Parents also have the right to excuse their children from tests, questionnaires and surveys relating to sex. To excuse a child, a parent must state his or her request in writing to the school district.
Parents should check if their child's school district has a form letter for them to use. If not, h ere are sample letters for parents to send to schools to review materials, or to opt their child out of all or part of the instruction:. The Church teaches that parents are the primary educators of their children. Research and discern how you will talk to your kids about sex The Church urges parents to discuss sex with their children.
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Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in year old children. PLoS One. Bewegen in nederland — Trendrapport Bewegen En Gezondheid Download references. The study sponsors were not involved in the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Silvia I. Written informed consent was obtained from parents and the study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen in accordance to the Declaration of Helsinki of as amended in lines —