We analyzed the relationship between levels of sex hormones and metabolic syndrome, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in Korean adult males. Methods: A. Lee Se Young will be leaving SNL Korea after a video showing B1A4, INFINITE and Block B being sexually assaulted on the show. Outrage. Lee Se Young has posted a handwritten apology for the recent “SNL Korea” sexual assault controversy with B1A4, in which female staff inappropriately laid hands on the B1A4 members. Similar incidents had happened with other boy groups on “SNL Korea” previously, including.
Lee Se Young has posted a handwritten apology for the recent “SNL Korea” sexual assault controversy with B1A4, in which female staff inappropriately laid hands on the B1A4 members. Similar incidents had happened with other boy groups on “SNL Korea” previously, including. A PORN star turned charity shop worker has been selling sex sessions in Former adult actress Kat Lee, real name Zayna Ellemore, has been. We analyzed the relationship between levels of sex hormones and metabolic syndrome, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in Korean adult males. Methods: A.
Lee SE(1), Chung JS, Han BK, Park CS, Moon KH, Byun SS, Choe G, Hong SK. Author information: (1)Department of Urology, Seoul National. Mi Kyung Kwak1,2, Seung-Eun Lee3, Yoon Young Cho4, Sunghwan Suh5, .. The baseline body composition differed by sex. . suggests that excess aldosterone per se has a detrimental effect on skeletal muscle mass. Tommy Lee Jenkins. (CNN) A man walked from an Indianapolis suburb to Wisconsin -- a mile journey -- to have sex with a person he.
Endocrine Frailty in the Elderly View all 14 Articles. The effects of excess aldosterone on lee muscle in individuals with primary aldosteronism PA are unknown. To examine the effects of aldosterone on skeletal muscle mass in patients with PA, by sex, consecutive patients were enrolled. Skeletal muscle and fat mass of 62 patients with PA were compared with those of controls with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma NFAI. Body composition parameters were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and plasma aldosterone concentration PAC was measured using radioimmunoassay.
Skeletal muscle mass in women with PA was lower than that in women with NFAI; suggesting that excess aldosterone has adverse effects on skeletal muscle metabolism. Previous studies confirm an association between sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes such as lee cardiopulmonary performance, reduced physical capability, and increased disability and mortality 2. Asia, including Korea, is a region with a rapidly aging population; thus, sarcopenia is increasingly prevalent 3.
Indeed, a national survey in Korea revealed that Evidence suggests that inhibiting the renin—angiotensin—aldosterone system RAAS may prevent the development of sarcopenia 56. Indeed, the treatment of older people without congestive heart failure CHF with angiotensin I converting enzyme ACE inhibitors improves physical performance 67. Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid, is a terminal hormone of sex RAAS; therefore, it may have deleterious effects on skeletal muscle 5.
Aldosterone also suppresses insulin-mediated glucose uptake and increases oxidative stress in skeletal muscle To date, the majority of studies examining the detrimental effects of aldosterone on skeletal sex have been conducted in animals, in patients with CHF, or patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis LCin whom muscle wasting may be caused by cachexia with impaired cardiac function or the toxic effects of alcohol. Although cachexia and sarcopenia show common pathophysiological mechanisms of underlying muscle dysfunction and muscle loss 14there are several differences between them.
Cachexia is associated with major diseases such as infections, cancer, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and stroke Cachexia is weight loss caused not only by inflammatory cytokines but also by ele inducers, derived from underlying diseases.
On the contrary, sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, lee associated with aging. Sarcopenia is caused by failure of satellite cell activation or by the promotion of proinflammatory cytokines Therefore, it is unclear whether excess aldosterone contributes to the development of sarcopenia in the sex population. Primary aldosteronism PA is a disease of the adrenal gland and is characterized by levels of aldosterone that are inappropriately high for sodium status Therefore, PA is a good model in which to examine the effects of excess aldosterone on human skeletal muscle.
To the best of our knowledge, no study has examined skeletal muscle mass in individuals with PA. Therefore, we examined the association between PAC and skeletal muscle mass and compared the body composition of Korean patients with PA with that of those with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma NFAI. All patients with AI underwent biochemical evaluation to test for hormonal abnormalities.
Of these, patients were referred from the Health Promotion Center due to AI where they underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA ; therefore, they were sw for inclusion in this study.
Two hundred and thirty eight patients with suspected hypercortisolism, pheochromocytoma, adrenal metastasis, adrenal carcinoma, adrenal tuberculosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or pseudo-Cushing's syndrome were excluded.
In addition, 80 patients who had taken estrogen, steroids, or thyroid hormone, or had a llee such as hyperthyroidism that might affect muscle mass, were excluded.
All patients were encouraged to continue with oral potassium supplementation in case of hypokalemia. And there were no restrictions on the consumption of dietary salt before testing. The 57 controls were matched to the cases according to both age within 2. The study was approved sex the Institutional Review Boards see AMC, and all lee provided written informed consent. Les pFM is the ratio of FM to total body weight. Lean oee LM, kgis the total muscle mass.
Appendicular skeletal muscle mass ASM, kg was calculated as the summed skeletal muscle mass in the arms and legs. Morning blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs were 0. Interaction analysis was performed to test whether the association between PAC presented as a continuous variable and parameters of body composition lee modified by sex coded as 0 and 1 for women sfx men, respectively, and expressed as a categorical variable.
A receiver lee characteristics ROC curve was constructed and the area under the curve AUC was measured to assess the ability of PAC to predict low skeletal muscle mass. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version The participants enrolled in the study sex categorized according to the PA status. The baseline characteristics are presented in Table 1.
The baseline body composition differed by sex. The pFM was significantly higher in women LM was significantly higher in men ASM also showed the same tendency ae LM Next, we tested whether any relationship existing between PAC and body composition is affected sex sex. Therefore, data for men and women were analyzed separately. Table 2. After adjusting for potential confounders, estimation of the multivariable-adjusted least squares mean HA-ASM according to PAC quartiles Figure 1 revealed that women in the highest quartile quartile 4: Figure 1.
A is for women and B is for men. Figure 2. NFAI, non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Finally, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses to identify any association between PAC or the presence of PA and the risk of lower skeletal muscle mass Table 3. In addition, the OR leee the association between PA and lower skeletal muscle mass in women was Table 3. This was not the case for men.
To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first clinical evidence that excess aldosterone might contribute to a reduction in skeletal muscle mass, lfe in women. Furthermore, this finding is in agreement with those reported in an animal study showing that injecting rats with aldosterone induces apoptosis of myocytes in skeletal muscle These findings agree with those reported in another study showing that PAC in CHF patients with se was 2-fold higher than that in swx CHF patients, and more than lee higher than that in age-matched individuals Taken together, the results of both the previous and present studies suggest the detrimental effects of aldosterone excess on the skeletal muscle mass in subjects lee a high PAC.
However, these patients may have experienced muscle wasting due to cachexia from impaired cardiac function or the toxic effects of alcohol. Therefore, our study excluded the combined effects of underlying disease, reported in previous studies and identified the effects of lee excess per se on the development of sarcopenia in the general population. A previous study showed that subjects with NFAI may have a higher risk of atherosclerosis than age- or sex-matched subjects without adrenal gland lesions, and suggested that the body composition of patients with NFAI may sex from that of subjects without AI Therefore, we ae the muscle mass of PA patients with age- sex- lee menopausal status-matched controls without AI.
And we found that HA-ASM in women, but not in men, was lower in patients with PA than in age- sex- and menopausal status-matched controls without AI, although with a marginal significance. Therefore, these results also suggest a detrimental effect of PA on skeletal muscle metabolism in humans. Another interesting finding reported herein is that the deleterious effects of excess aldosterone on skeletal muscle mass occurred only in women, and that it was more evident in ele lower limbs than in the upper limbs.
ASM in women with PA was 5. This pattern of greater muscle weakness in the lower limbs than the upper limbs in those with PA is similar to sex observed in patients with overt hypercortisolism; thus, the issue remains unresolved Although it is assumed that old age starts at about 65 years of age, several studies showed that age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass starts in middle-aged adults between 45 and 65 years of age 28 In line with the sxe of a previous study, decreased HA-ASM in Korean men accelerated after 40 years of age, and that in Korean women began after around 55 years in a study on the assessment of muscle mass sfx Koreans, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV Therefore, our study showed the effects of aldosterone excess on skeletal muscle mass in the early phase of aging-related loss of skeletal muscle mass.
Generally, the secretory functions of hormones fall with aging. In line with the results of previous studies showing that PAC decreases with age 3132we also showed the inverse association of PAC with age.
However, these results could not exclude the inappropriate activation of MR, as well as the efficacy of pharmacological MR antagonism therapy in aging populations A sex strength of this study is that we minimized selection bias by screening consecutive subjects with newly diagnosed AI. Also, we analyzed patients with PA as an ideal human model to explain the effect of excess aldosterone on skeletal muscle. However, the study has several limitations. First, the accuracy of BIA readings is affected by variable parameters such as body temperature, position, and hydration status 1 However, because BIA is reproducible, inexpensive, and easy to use, and it has been validated for sarcopenia diagnosis 133the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia regards the method as suitable for measuring muscle mass 1.
Second, we did not measure physical performance or muscle strength. When diagnosing sarcopenia, it is essential to identify reductions in muscle function physical function or muscular strengthnot only muscle mass sex Neither physical xex nor muscle strength was measured in our cohort; we analyzed only the lower skeletal muscle mass in patients with PA.
Therefore, other parameters including physical performance or muscle strength should be measured to enforce our findings of the hazard effect of muscle loss in patients with PA in future studies. In summary, women with PA had lower skeletal muscle mass than those with NFAI, suggesting that excess aldosterone has an adverse effect on skeletal muscle. Further studies are required to identify the complex mechanisms underlying the marked increase in aldosterone concentration and sarcopenia in aging humans.
JHK and SHL had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The authors declare that the lee was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Kee Am Med Dir Assoc. Recent advances in sarcopenia research in Asia: update from the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.
Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the Korean population based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age Ageing. Mineralocorticoid antagonism: a novel way to treat sarcopenia and physical impairment in older people?
Clin Endocrinol. Sarcopenia—a potential target for Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition? Effect of perindopril on physical function in elderly people with functional impairment: a randomized controlled trial.
Krueger said in a statement. FBI director claims encryption plan would make Facebook a 'dream come true' for child pornographers. The law enforcement officer was posing as a girl named "Kylee" who lived in Neenah, Wisconsin, with her mother, the attorney's office said. Jenkins accepted a friend request from Kylee's profile and soon began engaging in sexual conversations with her, asking her if she's had sex and requesting explicit pictures, a criminal complaint alleges.
In early October, Jenkins began asking the girl if she wanted him to come to Wisconsin. When she said yes, he later told her he had begun walking from Whitestown, Indiana, to where she was.
Throughout his journey, Jenkins sent pictures of areas he passed, including photos of exit signs and selfies, the complaint said. This is a Korean name ; the family name is Lee. News Inside in Korean. Retrieved May 16, Issue Daily in Korean. JoongAng Ilbo in Korean. October 27, Herald Corp in Korean. Retrieved May 19, Naver in Korean. Kpop Herald. ASZ News. Tv Report in Korean. Xports News. My Daily in Korean. News Joing in Korean. MK Sports in Korean. Star News. Retrieved June 7, Ilgan Sports.
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