their respective roles and were socialized to a double standard of sexual morality.' Sexual Attitudes of Young Iranian Women: From Tehran to Los Angeles,". Negotiating with Modernity: Young Women and Sexuality in. Iran. Fatemeh Sadeghi. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume The mullahs don't like it, but 3 million Iranian women older than 30 are unmarried. The connotation being: Is she available for sex? “My guard.
their respective roles and were socialized to a double standard of sexual morality.' Sexual Attitudes of Young Iranian Women: From Tehran to Los Angeles,". In Iran, everyone is talking about the sextapes of two Iranian a province in southwestern Iran -- having sexual relations with a woman. Negotiating with Modernity: Young Women and Sexuality in. Iran. Fatemeh Sadeghi. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume
their respective roles and were socialized to a double standard of sexual morality.' Sexual Attitudes of Young Iranian Women: From Tehran to Los Angeles,". Background: Substance use disorders and risky sexual behavior coexist for some women. Explanatory models of women's sexuality in the context of substance. Negotiating with Modernity: Young Women and Sexuality in. Iran. Fatemeh Sadeghi. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume
Islamic and Iranian considerations. Sara Nasserzadeh Certified woman therapis Dr. Maybe this is the End? Iranians Loved sex Hated Her for It. One reason? It irani them 99 lashes each. Music 'It will irani your house! For example, Iran sex at the forefront of stem cell research. Sexuality is not a taboo subject in Iran. Virtually every aspect of sex is is discussed in scientific terms.
Tehran University of Medical Sciences publishes over 34 scientific journals. Sexuality is often discussed in these journals. Here is an example. Furthermore, newspapers and magazines also cover sex-related issues. Irani translated woman from Persian publications have been posted in this index to show that these sex are discussed. The aex posted by Western media is often biased and exaggerated.
Wkman is portrayed as a backward, primitive country and woman need of regime change. The sex of the woman are often harsh irani politically biased. However, scholars have argued that Iranian women are not voiceless victims in a country of villans".
In response, we can point to the many irami of Western society iranl argue for regime change too.
They are lagging behind us. Azadi, her styled golden-brown hair half-covered by a patterned ivory scarf, described a man she lived with for two years. She broke up with him last year after he refused to let her go out in the evenings alone and interrogated her after parties about men she had danced next to. Her late father, a goldsmith, and mother supported her decision to remain single — particularly after her older sister, a successful lawyer with a year-old son, divorced a husband who opposed her going on business trips.
That alone reflects how women are asserting themselves, particularly among the urban middle class, where the Internet and Western satellite channels are slowly expanding the boundaries of what is socially acceptable. In the last nine months of , the number of registered marriages nationwide dipped by 3. Marrying remains a powerful norm in Iran, and many laws still treat women as the property of men.
A more recent relationship with a suave computer expert broke up when he told her he would only marry a virgin. But with so much of Iranian life centered on the family, many single women struggle with loneliness. He would bring up money at odd times, she said. Sometimes he would slip in underhanded comments, saying she must have gotten her job through family connections. We educated Iranian girls are stuck between tradition and modernity. I just want to be a decent girl who is a traditional mom and at the same time part of modern society.
Hajar Hasani, a year-old pathologist, divorced her surgeon husband two years ago after his long work hours took a toll on their marriage. He had grown uninterested in sex, she said, although later she found suggestive texts on his phone from nurses and female co-workers.
She already had rejected two suitors, she added, because they seemed mainly to be after sex. Virtually every aspect of sex is is discussed in scientific terms. Tehran University of Medical Sciences publishes over 34 scientific journals. Sexuality is often discussed in these journals. Here is an example.
Furthermore, newspapers and magazines also cover sex-related issues. Several translated article from Persian publications have been posted in this index to show that these topics are discussed.
The participants networking facilitated access to other women outside the DIC who were called outreaches Volunteer women who had history of substance use disorders ; the women in DIC invited other women to attend our group sessions.
Some of women volunteered to be interviewed individually. The purpose of the FGDs was to explore the women's current drug problems related to their sexual life alteration.
The interviews were conducted using interview guide Appendix. All interviews 60 to 90 min were audio recorded and transcribed by the research team verbatim. All notes and audiotapes were coded using the principles of content analysis; substantive statements were identified and emerging patterns noted To open their layers of life, behavioral experiences and patterns, conventional content analysis was employed to focus on creation and development of categories and interpretation of writing with inductive method.
Hidden contents and models can be clarified from the content 30, Credibility: To ensure that the study describes the participants' experiences, and the performed activities in all stages were recorded accurately Repeated listening to interviews, coding, continuous comparisons, subthemes and themed extraction until the final themes , the interviews were read and the text was coded and a group met the participants to ask them to confirm the validity and proportionality of the extracted codes with their experiences and opinions.
Transferability: For the matter of transferability, interview with maximum variation was done; for this reason, participants aged 18 and above, and various level of education, social, sexual experiences, and people with different beliefs were included and even two substance dependent women who were not sex workers were also interviewed These women had husband and lived with them in the home and the women asserted that they were not with other men.
Dependability: The stability of qualitative findings was ensured; for this reason, the finding was reviewed by two expert members of the research team who were experienced colleagues in qualitative studies. Conformability: For this purpose, the whole process of data collection, analyzing and extracting the themes was explained fully so that others could read and distinguish the research. Throughout the research, pseudonyms were used to protect the participants' identities.
The ethics committee of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences approved the study Approval code Results Three substantive main themes were extracted as the main elements of the explanatory model of women's sexual behaviors with substance use disorders. The themes included: 1 Life in the context of drug abuse; 2 Self-disturbed perception; 3 Strive to survive.
Subthemes were identified as loss of contact with family, social stigma, self-forgetfulness, worthlessness, and low self-efficacy, and unsafe sexual context Figure 1. The most important change in their sexual interactions was daily concern to obtain drugs. It caused "indifference", "neglect of family life" as well as poor help seeking behaviors such as HIV testing, seeking for or using condom consistently.
The majority of women defined these changes with the concept of "cutting off" from the family, and they considered the effects of drug abuse as the starting point of the mentioned experiences. You ignore your family or health. You concern is just for drug as if it ended. She was 39 years old, who used to smoke opium with her husband and has used opium for 19 years FGD4.
A participant attributed her separation from her family and involvement in sex work to her addiction. Maybe if I had not run away, I was not drawn this way, and I am a sex worker now, because I do not like this situation". She was a 32 year old sex worker and had been using opium for 12 years FGD2. As other participant said "my husband and I really loved each other at first, but problems gradually increased due to drug abuse. She was 36 years old with a 17 year history of drug abuse FGD3.
Some Iranian families consider separation from husband a terrible outcome which in turn isolates women when their marriage breaks down. A participant said "I was 14 years old when my step-mother arranged my marriage to a man who was 28 years old. I never loved him. I got divorced. My family did not accept me and abandoned me. When he was in prison, I was addicted and homeless".
She was 38 years old, who had used drug for 14 years FGD1. Divorce and addiction are two interrelated phenomena where either can cause the other. Divorce is a negative status in Iranian culture for women, and women are prone to social impairment after divorce. Social stigma : The findings highlight the point that the stigma attached to drug use can lead women to lose their social and family supports.
Some women choose to leave the family because there is no affection, intimacy or togetherness, and nobody cares or wants them as a member of the family. They are unable to believe in their ability, capability and confidence to provide their basic needs or to achieve their life goals. These negative self-perceptions are created by stigma originating from society at large. Therefore, it seems that they have changed their view of their sexual potential and values, and internalized the stigma that they always would be exposed to sexual misuse or abuse.
As a result, they resort to having sex with strangers in order to survive. A participant said "when you go to work, the employer first looks at your appearance, and when he sees your teeth, … then wants you to go with him, when you finished your work and others went home…umm… you have to stay….
Negative self- perception : The narratives reveal that women themselves hardly accept "female addicts" and tried to isolate themselves from the community. They had internalized the reality that "a female addict deserves to be isolated or segregated". Like other women in this study, a participant thought women should be abandoned from the community.
She said "Addicted women deserve to be isolated from the community. Other problems such as divorce are the results; she even humiliates herself and always step backs from the community. She aged 29 and used drug for 9 years FGD2.
Another participant supported other participants' viewpoints. She was 44 years old and had used drugs for 22 years FGD3. Self-forgetfulness : Self-negation was found an important consequence of living in the context of drug use. Women perceived their addictive behaviors as what would ruin their lives.
In other words, they used to refer to themselves as "dead body due to using drugs". Women's narratives show they are used to disregarding their own welfare over others. Women believed that "an addict woman is a fallen woman and deserves to be used as a sexual object". From the women's viewpoint, a worthy woman is free to express her power, make a decision and have a life plan, while our participants found themselves hopeless about the future, uninterested, and incapable of making their own decision.
Women point out their ruined femininity as the reason for separation and isolation from society. Further, the participants were deviated from their learned gender role.
They had easily degraded their gender-based values as well as roles. In other words, these women have defined another construction for their gender role in the context of drug abuse. Many of the women felt damaged and worthless because they had been violated and abused physically, sexually and psychologically, as it is evident from their narratives. Regarding the above issue, a participant said "I do not have anything to lose in life, you know…I have totally forgotten myself [khod faramoshi]", "I have lost the best times in my life", and "I regret and want to return to the past".
She was 37 years old who has used drugs for 15 years FGDs. Worthlessness : Women who felt "worthless" never thought they would have a chance to enjoy themselves. Self-negation in this context specifically what could be called "self-sex-negation" is a by-product of drug abuse and selling sex. The drug dependent women's viewpoint was that sex work impairs their existence.