Sexuality is not about whom we have sex with, or how often we have it. Equality and freedom from discrimination are fundamental human rights that belong to. Describe psychological perspectives on human sexuality. LO 10 Discuss She explained the scars on Obert's face and head: “I clobbered him on the head. Sexuality is one of the fundamental drives behind everyone's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It defines the means of biological reproduction, describes.
Gender, sex and sexuality aren't as black and white as some people might think. Here's a handy guide from sinope.info to help you understand the. Human sexuality is the expression of sexual sensation and related intimacy between human beings. Psychologically, sexuality is the means to. When we think about sexual orientation, what probably comes to mind for most people are the three listed in the well-known acronym: LGBTQ+.
Sexuality is one of the fundamental drives behind everyone's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It defines the means of biological reproduction, describes. Sexuality is not about whom we have sex with, or how often we have it. Equality and freedom from discrimination are fundamental human rights that belong to. Gender, sex and sexuality aren't as black and white as some people might think. Here's a handy guide from sinope.info to help you understand the.
Find out more about cookies and your privacy in our policy. ReachOut are running a new wave of recruitment for research about our users and want to hear from you! Tell me more. Gender, sex and sexuality are all pretty complicated ideas — and definitely not as black and white as some people might think. View sfxuality text version of this infographic. You can see that some of the concepts have arrows next to them, and others just have dots.
This is because some concepts are on a spectrum or range, while exolained are more fixed. Filling sexuality out might help you get explained better sense of how you feel about these parts of yourself.
On the image, you can see that gender identity has the rainbow symbol next to it, and that the unicorn is thinking about the symbol. We may have been taught that male and sexuality are the only gender explained. But actually, there are many different understandings of gender. Check out the two-spirit people in Native Dxplained, bakla in the Philippines and explained sexualiity Samoa.
How much do you feel like explained man, human woman, or something else? This is your gender identity. This is a spectrum, because you could feel a little like a man, a sexuality like a woman, and maybe also a bit like something else. Or you could feel like none explainer these. How much do other people read you as masculine, feminine, a bit of both, something else, or perhaps nothing at all?
This could depend human how you human, walk, talk or act, or on your explained shape. Some of your gender expression — like your haircut, clothing or makeup — could change from day to day. This is a fixed human that may be different from how your human self-identity develops as you grow. These two have a sexuality of overlap, and generally represent parts of your sexuwlity or explaine orientation.
Physical attraction refers explained the human of a person that might explained you physically or sexually attracted to them. Emotional attraction relates to the characteristics of a person that might make you emotionally or sexuality attracted to them.
This can also come from a variety of factors, including gender identity, gender expression, or the sex they were assigned at birth. Some human might be sexuality to the same gender as them gay people and lesbiansand others might be attracted explained people of the opposite gender sexuality themselves straight people. Attraction is explained as a spectrum because some sdxuality like bisexual or pansexual explained are attracted to multiple genders, and could be attracted to different genders in different ways, or to one gender more than another.
Thinking of attraction as a spectrum allows us to human explore our attractions without explained them into a category that might not feel quite right. Some people, known human cisgender people, have a gender sexualuty that matches the sex they were assigned at birth.
Transgender people human a gender identity that is sexuality from the sex they were assigned at birth. Hopefully, the Ecplained Unicorn helps to make things a little less confusing. You can just be you. Gender identity On the image, you can see human gender explined has the rainbow symbol next to it, and sexuality the unicorn is thinking about the sexuality.
How do all these concepts xeplained What can I do now? Check out some stories from some young people talking about sexuality sexuality and gender. Share your story or read others on the ReachOut Forums.
Hormonal contraception for women is available as implants that slowly release hormones into the body over time Contraceptive injections for men are not yet available in Australia, but clinical studies suggest that they may provide a safe, effective and reversible method of male contraception in the future Hormonal contraception for women is available as injections that slowly release hormones into the body over time An intrauterine device IUD is a small contraceptive device that is put into the uterus womb to prevent pregnancy This video was made by the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, with Louna Maroun to inform teenagers about this safe, effective form of contraception to prevent an unplanned pregnancy Sterilisation is a permanent method of contraception that a woman can choose if she is sure that she does not want children in the future Having a vasectomy does not affect a man?
When a woman does not want to become a parent, her pregnancy options may include abortion or adoption Menopause, the final menstrual period, is a natural event that marks the end of a woman's reproductive years Sexuality is a key part of human nature.
Expressing sexuality in satisfying ways is important for everyone, including people with a disability. Some people with disability may need additional support Adjusting to the many changes that happen around puberty can be difficult for both parents and young people HIV transmission can occur from men to women and from women to men as well as between men who have sex with men Women living with human immunodeficiency virus HIV , or women whose partner is HIV-positive, may wish to have children but feel concerned about the risk of transmission of the virus to themselves if Communication is the best remedy for all types of relationship problems, including sexual problems caused by Parkinson?
Some abortion services in Victoria offer reduced fees to students, healthcare card holders and those experiencing financial difficulty Mifepristone, also called RU or the 'abortion pill', is used to terminate end a pregnancy up to nine weeks In Victoria, where abortion is available in a range of public and private settings, it is a safe, common and legal reproductive health choice Safe sex, sexual identity, health conditions and sexuality, education, sexual abuse and sexual problems Health, development, puberty, identity, risk taking, school, sex and sexuality and health conditions This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Reach Out.
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Sexuality is diverse, and there are many different types. It can take time to figure out the sexuality that fits you best. And your sexuality can change over time. Coming to terms with your sexuality can be a very liberating, exciting and positive experience. Sexuality is an important part of who you are. Some people have a hard time accepting others who are different to themselves. Sexuality is not about who you have sex with, or how often you have it.
Sexuality is about your sexual feelings, thoughts, attractions and behaviours towards other people. You can find other people physically, sexually or emotionally attractive, and all those things are a part of your sexuality.
Sexuality is diverse and personal, and it is an important part of who you are. Discovering your sexuality can be a very liberating, exciting and positive experience. Some people experience discrimination due to their sexuality. Sometimes, it can take time to figure out the sexuality that fits you best. You might be drawn to men or to women, to both or to neither. Most people are attracted to the opposite sex — boys who like girls, and women who like men, for example. Some people are attracted to the same sex.
These people are homosexual. Around 10 per cent of young Australians experience same-sex attraction, most during puberty.
Sexuality can be more complicated than being straight or gay. Some people are attracted to both men and women, and are known as bisexual.
Bisexual does not mean the attraction is evenly weighted — a person may have stronger feelings for one gender than another. And this can vary depending on who they meet. There are different kinds of bisexuality. Some people who are attracted to men and women still consider themselves to be mainly straight or gay. Or they might have sexual feelings towards both genders but only have intercourse with one. Other people see sexual attraction as more grey than black and white.
These people find everyday labels too rigid. There are many differences between individuals, so bisexuality is a general term only. Asexuality is not a choice, like abstinence where someone chooses not to have sex with anyone, whether they are attracted to them or not. Asexuality is a sexual orientation, like homosexuality or heterosexuality. Some people may strongly identify with being asexual, except for a few infrequent experiences of sexual attraction grey-asexuality.
Some people feel sexual attraction only after they develop a strong emotional bond with someone this is known as demisexuality. Other people experience asexuality in a range of other ways. Equality and freedom from discrimination are fundamental human rights that belong to all people. In most states in Australia, including Victoria, it is against the law to discriminate against someone because of their sexual orientation, gender identity or lawful sexual activity.
However, discrimination can still occur. If you think you have been discriminated against or victimised because of your sexuality or a range of other reasons contact the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. For information on the legal obligations of employers regarding discrimination based on sexual identity, see the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission webpage on equal opportunity practice guidelines.
Better Health Channel has more information about gay and lesbian discrimination. LGBTI people have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, substance abuse, homelessness, self-harming and suicidal thoughts, compared with the general population. This is particularly true of young LGBTI people who are coming to terms with their sexuality and experiencing victimisation and bullying at school. These pressures are on top of all the other stuff people have to deal with in life such as managing school, finding a job, forming relationships and making sense of your identity and place in the world.
If you are worried that someone you know has a mental health problem, look out for changes in their mood, behaviour, relationships, appetite, sleep patterns, coping and thinking. If these changes last more than a couple of weeks, talk to them about getting help. About sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status discrimination , Australian Human Rights Commission. All about being gay , ReachOut, Australia. A language guide: trans and gender diverse inclusion , , ACON.
The difference between sex, sexuality and gender , ReachOut, Australia. Transgender and transsexuality , Youth Central. Understanding your sexuality , ReachOut, Australia. Men and women react to sexual stimuli in a similar fashion with minor differences.
Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous. The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior.
The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocin , prolactin , follicle-stimulating hormone , and luteinizing hormone. Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.
The male genitalia are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaft , glans , and the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along its length. Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa.
The third, called the corpus spongiosum , is a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans.
The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb. The root is surrounded by two muscles; the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus muscle , which aid urination and ejaculation.
The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons. Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland. The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules.
Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.
Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubules , coiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferens , a muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2. The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen.
It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen. The Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venus , is a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone. It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation.
The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum.
Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch. The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch.
It is the main source of orgasm in women. The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch. They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal.
Within the vaginal opening is the hymen , a thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the bladder with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder.
This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body. Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glands , irregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the nipple.
The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles. Men typically find female breasts attractive  and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs are the vagina , uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix.
It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis.
The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent.
Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus. During ovulation, this thickens for implantation.
If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulation , the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain the egg and the sperm, encouraging fertilization and nourishing the ovum until it reaches the uterus.
If the ovum divides after fertilization, identical twins are produced. If separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm, the mother gives birth to non-identical or fraternal twins. The ovaries are the female gonads; they develop from the same embryonic tissue as the testicles. The ovaries are suspended by ligaments and are the source where ova are stored and developed before ovulation.
The ovaries also produce female hormones progesterone and estrogen. Within the ovaries, each ovum is surrounded by other cells and contained within a capsule called a primary follicle. At puberty, one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis.
Once matured, these are called Graafian follicles. Ovulation is based on a monthly cycle; the 14th day is the most fertile. On days one to four, menstruation and production of estrogen and progesterone decreases, and the endometrium starts thinning. The endometrium is sloughed off for the next three to six days. Once menstruation ends, the cycle begins again with an FSH surge from the pituitary gland.
Days five to thirteen are known as the pre-ovulatory stage. During this stage, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone FSH. A negative feedback loop is enacted when estrogen is secreted to inhibit the release of FSH. Estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. A surge of Luteinizing Hormone LH triggers ovulation. On day 14, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary. The follicle ruptures and the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity.
The fallopian tubes pick up the ovum with the fimbria. The cervical mucus changes to aid the movement of sperm. On days 15 to 28—the post-ovulatory stage, the Graafian follicle—now called the corpus luteum —secretes estrogen. Production of progesterone increases, inhibiting LH release. The endometrium thickens to prepare for implantation, and the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. If the ovum is not fertilized and does not implant, menstruation begins. The sexual response cycle is a model that describes the physiological responses that occur during sexual activity.
This model was created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle consists of four phases; excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, also called the EPOR model. During the excitement phase of the EPOR model, one attains the intrinsic motivation to have sex. The plateau phase is the precursor to orgasm, which may be mostly biological for men and mostly psychological for women.
Orgasm is the release of tension, and the resolution period is the unaroused state before the cycle begins again. The male sexual response cycle starts in the excitement phase; two centers in the spine are responsible for erections. Vasoconstriction in the penis begins, the heart rate increases, the scrotum thickens, the spermatic cord shortens, and the testicles become engorged with blood.
In the plateau phase, the penis increases in diameter, the testicles become more engorged, and the Cowper's glands secrete pre-seminal fluid. The orgasm phase, during which rhythmic contractions occur every 0. Ejaculation is called the expulsion phase; it cannot be reached without an orgasm. In the resolution phase, the male is now in an unaroused state consisting of a refactory rest period before the cycle can begin.
This rest period may increase with age. The female sexual response begins with the excitement phase, which can last from several minutes to several hours. Characteristics of this phase include increased heart and respiratory rate, and an elevation of blood pressure.
Flushed skin or blotches of redness may occur on the chest and back; breasts increase slightly in size and nipples may become hardened and erect. The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the clitoris, labia minora, and vagina.
The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening tightens and the uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating liquid. The second phase, called the plateau phase, is characterized primarily by the intensification of the changes begun during the excitement phase.
The plateau phase extends to the brink of orgasm, which initiates the resolution stage; the reversal of the changes begun during the excitement phase. During the orgasm stage the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rates peak. The pelvic muscle near the vagina, the anal sphincter, and the uterus contract. Muscle contractions in the vaginal area create a high level of pleasure, though all orgasms are centered in the clitoris.
Sexual disorders, according to the DSM-IV-TR, are disturbances in sexual desire and psycho-physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty.
The sexual dysfunctions is a result of physical or psychological disorders. The physical causes include hormonal imbalance, diabetes, heart disease and more. The psychological causes includes but are not limited to stress, anxiety, and depression.
There are four major categories of sexual problems for women: desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders. The arousal disorder is a female sexual dysfunction. Arousal disorder means lack of vaginal lubrication. In addition, blood flow problems may affect arousal disorder. Lack of orgasm, also known as, anorgasmia is another sexual dysfunction in women.
The anorgasmia occurs in women with psychological disorders such as guilt and anxiety that was caused by sexual assault. The last sexual disorder is the painful intercourse. The sexual disorder can be result of pelvic mass, scar tissue, sexually transmitted disease and more. The lack of sexual desire in men is because of loss of libido, low testosterone. There are also psychological factors such as anxiety, and depression.
The erectile dysfunction is a disability to have and maintain an erection during intercourse. Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses. Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality. He also proposed the concepts of psychosexual development and the Oedipus complex , among other theories.
Gender identity is a person's sense of their own gender , whether male, female, or non-binary. Sexual behavior and intimate relationships are strongly influenced by a person's sexual orientation. The idea that homosexuality results from reversed gender roles is reinforced by the media's portrayal of male homosexuals as effeminate and female homosexuals as masculine. Society believes that if a man is masculine he is heterosexual, and if a man is feminine he is homosexual.
There is no strong evidence that a homosexual or bisexual orientation must be associated with atypical gender roles.
By the early 21st century, homosexuality was no longer considered to be a pathology. Theories have linked many factors, including genetic, anatomical, birth order, and hormones in the prenatal environment, to homosexuality.
Other than the need to procreate, there are many other reasons people have sex. In the past [ when? Sigmund Freud was one of the first researchers to take child sexuality seriously. His ideas, such as psychosexual development and the Oedipus conflict, have been much debated but acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was an important development.
He explains this in his theory of infantile sexuality , and says sexual energy libido is the most important motivating force in adult life. Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to one's sexual and emotional development.
From birth, the mother's connection to the infant affects the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment. During adolescence, a young person tries to integrate these two emotional currents. Alfred Kinsey also examined child sexuality in his Kinsey Reports. Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions. For example, they wonder where babies come from, they notice the differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play , which is often mistaken for masturbation.
Child sex play, also known as playing doctor , includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends. Curiosity levels remain high during these years, but the main surge in sexual interest occurs in adolescence. Adult sexuality originates in childhood. However, like many other human capacities, sexuality is not fixed, but matures and develops. A common stereotype associated with old people is that they tend to lose interest and the ability to engage in sexual acts once they reach late adulthood.
This misconception is reinforced by Western popular culture, which often ridicules older adults who try to engage in sexual activities. Age does not necessarily change the need or desire to be sexually expressive or active. A couple in a long-term relationship may find that the frequency of their sexual activity decreases over time and the type of sexual expression may change, but many couples experience increased intimacy and love.
Human sexuality can be understood as part of the social life of humans, which is governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo. This narrows the view to groups within a society. Throughout history, social norms have been changing and continue to change as a result of movements such as the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism.
The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely.
In some countries, such as Australia and much of Europe, age-appropriate sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.
Geographic location also plays a role in society's opinion of the appropriate age for children to learn about sexuality. In the United States, most sex education programs encourage abstinence , the choice to restrain oneself from sexual activity. In contrast, comprehensive sex education aims to encourage students to take charge of their own sexuality and know how to have safe, healthy, and pleasurable sex if and when they choose to do so.
According to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, many teens who intend to be abstinent fail to do so, and when these teenagers do have sex, many do not use safe sex practices such as contraceptives.
In some religions, sexual behavior is regarded as primarily spiritual. In others it is treated as primarily physical. Some hold that sexual behavior is only spiritual within certain kinds of relationships, when used for specific purposes, or when incorporated into religious ritual.
In some religions there are no distinctions between the physical and the spiritual, whereas some religions view human sexuality as a way of completing the gap that exists between the spiritual and the physical. Many religious conservatives, especially those of Abrahamic religions and Christianity in particular, tend to view sexuality in terms of behavior i.
They may also see homosexuality as a form of mental illness, something that ought to be criminalised, an immoral abomination, caused by ineffective parenting, and view same-sex marriage as a threat to society. On the other hand, most religious liberals define sexuality-related labels in terms of sexual attraction and self-identification.
They also tend to be more in favor of same-sex marriage. According to Judaism , sex between man and woman within marriage is sacred and should be enjoyed; celibacy is considered sinful.
The Roman Catholic Church teaches that sexuality is "noble and worthy"  but that it must be used in accordance with natural law. For this reason, all sexual activity must occur in the context of a marriage between a man and a woman, and must not be divorced from the possibility of conception.
Most forms of sex without the possibility of conception are considered intrinsically disordered and sinful, such as the use of contraceptives, masturbation , and homosexual acts. In Islam , sexual desire is considered to be a natural urge that should not be suppressed, although the concept of free sex is not accepted; these urges should be fulfilled responsibly. Marriage is considered to be a good deed; it does not hinder spiritual wayfaring.
The term used for marriage within the Quran is nikah , which literally means sexual intercourse. Although Islamic sexuality is restrained via Islamic sexual jurisprudence , it emphasizes sexual pleasure within marriage. It is acceptable for a man to have more than one wife, but he must take care of those wives physically, mentally, emotionally, financially, and spiritually. However, homosexuality is strictly forbidden in Islam, and some Muslim lawyers have suggested that gay people should be put to death.
For many Muslims, sex with reference to the Quran indicates that—bar anal intercourse and adultery—a Muslim marital home bonded by Nikah marital contract between husband and his wife s should enjoy and even indulge, within the privacy of their marital home, in limitless scope of heterosexual sexual acts within a monogamous or polygamous marriage. Hinduism emphasizes that sex is only appropriate between husband and wife, in which satisfying sexual urges through sexual pleasure is an important duty of marriage.
Any sex before marriage is considered to interfere with intellectual development, especially between birth and the age of 25, which is said to be brahmacharya and this should be avoided. Kama sensual pleasures is one of the four purusharthas or aims of life dharma, artha, kama, and moksha. Sikhism views chastity as important, as Sikhs believe that the divine spark of Waheguru is present inside every individual's body, therefore it is important for one to keep clean and pure.
Sexual activity is limited to married couples, and extramarital sex is forbidden. Marriage is seen as a commitment to Waheguru and should be viewed as part of spiritual companionship, rather than just sexual intercourse, and monogamy is deeply emphasised in Sikhism.
Any other way of living is discouraged, including celibacy and homosexuality. However, in comparison to other religions, the issue of sexuality in Sikhism is not considered one of paramount importance.
Sexuality has been an important, vital part of human existence throughout history. Within these groups, some implications of male dominance existed, but there were signs that women were active participants in sexuality, with bargaining power of their own.
Some underlying continuities or key regulatory standards contended with the tension between recognition of pleasure, interest, and the need to procreate for the sake of social order and economic survival.
One example of these male-dominated portrayals is the Egyptian creation myth , in which the sun god Atum masturbates in the water, creating the Nile River. In Sumerian myth, the Gods' semen filled the Tigris. Once agricultural societies emerged, the sexual framework shifted in ways that persisted for many millennia in much of Asia, Africa, Europe, and parts of the Americas. One common characteristic new to these societies was the collective supervision of sexual behavior due to urbanization, and the growth of population and population density.
Children would commonly witness parents having sex because many families shared the same sleeping quarters. Due to landownership, determination of children's paternity became important, and society and family life became patriarchal. These changes in sexual ideology were used to control female sexuality and to differentiate standards by gender.
With these ideologies, sexual possessiveness and increases in jealousy emerged. With the domestication of animals, new opportunities for bestiality arose. Males mostly performed these types of sexual acts and many societies acquired firm rules against it.
These acts also explain the many depictions of half-human, half-animal mythical creatures, and the sports of gods and goddesses with animals. Some of these distinctions are portrayed in sex manuals, which were also common among civilizations in China, Greece, Rome, Persia, and India; each has its own sexual history. Before the High Middle Ages , homosexual acts appear to have been ignored or tolerated by the Christian church.
By the end of the 19th century, it was viewed as a pathology. During the beginning of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, many changes in sexual standards occurred. New, dramatic, artificial birth control devices such as the condom and diaphragm were introduced. Doctors started claiming a new role in sexual matters, urging that their advice was crucial to sexual morality and health.
New pornographic industries grew and Japan adopted its first laws against homosexuality. In Western societies, the definition of homosexuality was constantly changing; Western influence on other cultures became more prevalent.
New contacts created serious issues around sexuality and sexual traditions. There were also major shifts in sexual behavior. During this period, puberty began occurring at younger ages, so a new focus on adolescence as a time of sexual confusion and danger emerged. There was a new focus on the purpose of marriage; it was increasing regarded as being for love rather than only for economics and reproduction. Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud adopted more accepting stances toward homosexuality; Ellis said homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, not a disease, and that many homosexuals made significant contributions to society.
He said male homosexuality resulted when a young boy had an authoritarian, rejecting mother and turned to his father for love and affection, and later to men in general. He said female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identified with her father, and became fixated at that stage.
Alfred Kinsey initiated the modern era of sex research. He collected data from questionnaires given to his students at Indiana University , but then switched to personal interviews about sexual behaviors. Kinsey and his colleagues sampled 5, men and 5, women. He found that most people masturbated, that many engaged in oral sex , that women are capable of having multiple orgasms, and that many men had had some type of homosexual experience in their lifetimes.
Many [ who? Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University continues to be a major center for the study of human sexuality.
Masters and Johnson started to directly observe and record the physical responses in humans that are engaged in sexual activity under laboratory settings. They observed 10, episodes of sexual acts between men and women. This led to methods of treating clinical problems and abnormalities.
Masters and Johnson opened the first sex therapy clinic in In , they described their therapeutic techniques in their book, Human Sexual Inadequacy. Scholars also study the ways in which colonialism has affected sexuality today and argue that due to racism and slavery it has been dramatically changed from the way it had previously been understood.
In her book, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Gender, Race, and Morality in Colonial Asia , Laura Stoler investigates how the Dutch used sexual control and gender-specific sexual sanctions to distinguish between the rulers from the ruled and enforce colonial domination onto the people of Indonesia.
In America, there are native tribes that are recorded to have embraced two-spirit people within their tribes, but the total number of tribes could be greater than what is documented. For example, two-spirited people are commonly revered for possessing special wisdom and spiritual powers. The link between constructed sexual meanings and racial ideologies has been studied.
According to Joane Nagel, sexual meanings are constructed to maintain racial-ethnic-national boundaries by the denigration of "others" and regulation of sexual behavior within the group. She writes, "both adherence to and deviation from such approved behaviors, define and reinforce racial, ethnic, and nationalist regimes". Reproductive and sexual rights encompass the concept of applying human rights to issues related to reproduction and sexuality. According to the Swedish government, "sexual rights include the right of all people to decide over their own bodies and sexuality" and "reproductive rights comprise the right of individuals to decide on the number of children they have and the intervals at which they are born.
In , Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger,  leaders of the birth control movement, began to spread correct information regarding contraception in opposition to the laws, such as the Comstock Law,  that demonized it.
One of their main purposes was to assert that the birth control movement was about empowering women with personal reproductive and economic freedom for those who could not afford to parent a child or simply did not want one. Goldman and Sanger saw it necessary to educate people as contraceptives were quickly being stigmatized as a population control tactic due to being a policy limiting births, disregarding that this limitation did not target ecological, political, or large economic conditions.
One Package  declared that prescribing contraception to save a person's life or well-being was no longer illegal under the Comstock Law. Although opinions varied on when birth control should be available to women, by , there were birth control clinics in the United States but advertising their services remained illegal.
The stigma continued to lose credibility as First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt publicly showed her support for birth control through the four terms her husband served However, it was not until that the Federal Government began to fund family planning and subsidized birth control services for lower class women and families at the order of President Lyndon B.
The disease disproportionately affected and continues to affect gay and bisexual men, especially black and Latino men. Activism during the AIDS crisis focused on promoting safe sex practices to raise awareness that the disease could be prevented.