Homosexualidad enfermedad 1990

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Los bisexuales, las lesbianas y los homosexuales (BLH) se enfrentan a diversas es incipiente el conocimiento que se tiene sobre las condiciones de salud y enfermedad de los BLH. .. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, , From May through April , 1, adult homosexual and bisexual men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding. Palabras clave: Chile; homosexualidad; medicalización según el cual la homosexualidad representa una enfermedad, un desvío o una perversión. "Panorama histórico de la clínica psiquiátrica de la Universidad de Chile".

La falta de conocimiento sobre las causas de la homosexualidad se extiende .. el Control de las Enfermedades o CDC (Centers for Disease Control) de EE. .. SÍ declaró la homosexualidad como enfermedad hasta , no hace tanto, por​. Madonna, artista y empresaria estadounidense, es considerada por la cultura LGBT un ícono gay. Según la intérprete, su acercamiento con la comunidad se inició en su adolescencia, inducida por su profesor de baile, Christopher Flynn, un hombre abiertamente homosexual. . Ambos siguieron siendo amigos, hasta la muerte de él en , a causa del. The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. removed homosexuality from the ICD which was endorsed by the 43rd World Health Assembly on 17 May Until the 19th century, homosexual activity was referred to as "unnatural, crimes against nature"​, sodomy or.

Los bisexuales, las lesbianas y los homosexuales (BLH) se enfrentan a diversas es incipiente el conocimiento que se tiene sobre las condiciones de salud y enfermedad de los BLH. .. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, , Se aplicó un cuestionario a bisexuales, lesbianas y homosexuales de la ciudad de México . que la homosexualidad es una enfermedad o una forma de inadaptación social, o bien, en sus .. New York: Oxford University Press; p. view.5 Moreover, recent surveys demonstrate that homosexual behaviour is a behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD), published in This chapter .. revisión de la Clasificación Estadística Internacional de Enfermedades y.






Calzada del HuesoCol. E-mail: lortiz correo. El cuestionario fue completado por los mismos sujetos. Bisexuals, lesbians, and homosexuals BLH face diverse forms of enferrmedad exclusion because their sexual orientation SO is enfermedad negatively in most societies. Studies performed in industrialized countries have shown that prejudices faced by the BLH population may have a deleterious effect in their mental health uomosexualidad, in comparison with heterosexuals, they present a higher prevalence of consumption of alcohol and other drugs, suicide attempts, suicide ideation and mental disorders.

Meyer has pointed out in hokosexualidad studies that comparing BLH and heterosexual morbidity may only allow for the documentation of the existence of negative effects of heterosexism and homophobia on BLH health.

Although this means a 1990 advance, it does not allow for the exploration of homozexualidad through which oppression leads to higher morbidity in the BLH population.

It must be added that most of these studies are encermedad guided by a conceptual framework which explains in detail the differences in mental morbidity between heterosexuals and BLH. Despite the fact that in Latin America increasingly more academics and politicians are worried by these problems, knowledge about health and disease conditions in BLH is still incipient.

It was concluded that homoxexualidad studies are necessary about mental health in enfermedav BLH population in which bisexual homosexualidad lesbian women are included, because they have been studied nomosexualidad less frequency than homosexual and bisexual males.

Considering the above, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of internalization of oppression on the risk of presenting mental health damages in the BLH population.

The oppression of BLH is homlsexualidad by three dominant norms homosexualidad from the gender system: a Heterosexism, which is the ehfermedad system that denies, derides and stigmatizes any form of behavior, identity, relation or community different from the heterosexual ones.

Culturally, homosexuality is equaled enfermedad the transgression of gender stereotypes TGS : homosexual males are thought of as feminine and lesbians as masculine, although in reality this does not always the case.

That is why many BLH have suffered diverse forms of violence homosexualidad in infancy and adolescence they were feminine males or masculine women. Androcentrism explains why homosexuality is more punished in males than enfdrmedad females. BLH, just like heterosexuals, grow up and live in a society structured in terms of the dominant norms of the gender system.

Enefrmedad homosexualidad that BLH internalize the dominant values of the gender system. To understand how BLH incorporate oppression in their subjectivity, one may recover the concept of habitus which is defined as a system of categories of perception, thought and action. Internalized homophobia occurs when BLH incorporate in their self-esteem the negative meanings, the prejudices and stereotypes accrued to homosexuality and TGS, which causes them to have neg ative attitude towards their own homosexuality, the homosexuality of others, towards their TGS and that of others.

Due to the symbolic link between TGS and homosexuality, it is important to incorporate the negative attitude towards TGS in the definition of internalized homophobia. The perception of the stigma due to homosexuality refers to the expectations of BLH about possible attitudes and reactions that other persons may have due to their SO.

By hiding, BLH 1990 their physical appearance and their behavior with the goal to make invisible their homosexuality or the expressions considered TGS.

Homosexualidzd observational, cross-sectional and analytical study was performed. A part of the population was contacted through personal networks of the author and a list of e-mail addresses of a socialization group.

The questionnaire was completed by the enfefmedad themselves. Through the questionnaire, snfermedad three forms homosexualidad internalized oppression were evaluated internalized homophobia, perception of stigma homosexhalidad hiding and five risks to health perception of the health status, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism. A fifth of the population presented homosexuxlidad of alcoholism. It was observed that the enfermddad of alcoholism in BL women surveyed was up to seven times higher than that reported by other women.

Half of the surveyed individuals tried to avoid TGS in front of heterosexuals and five of ten did it only when they were amongst their BLH friends. Concerning the differences by sex in the forms of internalized oppression, in bisexual and homosexual males those related to TGS were more frequent negative attitude towards TGS, a homosexualidad of it, tried to avoid TGS and 1990 TGS when they were with BLH friendswhile homosexualidad bisexual and lesbian women the higher percentages were those related to SO scale of perception of stigma due to homosexuality, enfermedad of negative reaction of family towards BLH, afraid people knew their SO and avoid showing affection to their partner.

Likewise, among bisexual and homozexualidad males internalized homophobia was more frequent than in bisexual and lesbian women. The perception of the health status was not associated with any indicator of internalized homophobia.

BLH presenting high levels in the scale of internalized homophobia suffered guilt due to their SO or had negative attitudes towards TGS, showed higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders.

The scale of internalized homophobia and the negative attitude towards TGS were also associated with alcoholism. Shame due to TGS increased their probability of presenting suicide ideation and mental disorders.

The stigma scale was not related to any of the damages studied. The expectation of negative reactions from their relatives, schoolmates or co-workers was associated with a 9190 risk of perception of bad or regular health homosexualidad, suicide ideation and mental disorders. As enfermedad number of friends who knew the SO increased hiding indicatorthe greater the probability was of presenting mental disorders, but homosexuwlidad than that of presenting alcoholism. The increase in the number of schoolmates or ehfermedad who knew the SO was related with a lower risk enfermedad alcoholism.

Avoiding showing affection to their homsoexualidad of the same sex was related with a homosexualidad risk or presenting alcoholism. The risks of suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders were higher in the persons that did all they could to hide their SO. BLH who avoided TGS had enfermedad higher probability of presenting enfermedad ideation, mental disorders and alcoholism. The results of the study showed that BLH population have important health problems such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts and alcoholism enfermedad the case of the LB women.

Further, although there are differences between homosexual and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females regarding the most frequent type of internalized oppression, the three forms of internalized oppression internalized homophobia, perception of the stigma due enfermeddad homosexuality, and hiding were associated 1990 a higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and enfermedav.

These findings may be recovered to prevent health damages in the BLH population. These actions are the result of the magnitude of the problem and not because the existence of these sub-groups is recognized.

Therefore, it is required that government institutions broaden the scope of the welfare and health programs directed towards the BLH population. Evidently, long term measures must be taken to eliminate prejudice against homosexuality and TGS, which may only be possible through modifications in the social institutions.

Guidelines for use in Primary Health Care. World Health Organization, Carrier JM: Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior. Arch Sex Behav5 2 Cass VC: Homosexual identity: a concept in need of definition. J Homosex9 Conferencia de Prensajulio 28 de 1990 Gay Lesbian Med Assoc4 3 The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of homosexuapidad and bisexual Latino homosexualidad findings from 3 US cities.

Am J Public Health91 6 Diplacido J: Minority stress among lesbian, gay men, and bisexuals: a consequence of heterosexism, homophobia and stigmatization. En: 1990 GM ed. J Pediatr, Am J Public Health88 2 Arch Gen Psychiatry, Forstein M: Homophobia: an overview.

Psychiatr Ann18 1 : Psychoanal Rev86 3 Arch Enfermedwd Adolesc Med5 Goffman E: Estigma. La Identidad Deteriorada. Oxford University Enfermedad, Nueva York, Salud Mental19 1 Gonsiorek JC: Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care9 2 Granero M: Diferencias entre homosexuales y heterosexuales en comportamiento homoxexualidad personalidad. Rev Latinoam Enffermedad16 3 Hate Crimes. Sage Publications, 1990 Bury Park,enfermedad J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc, A cotwin control study in adult men.

J Adolesc Res12 4 Klein F: The need to view sexual orientation as a multivariable dynamic process: a theoretical perspective. Concepts of Sexual Orientation. Homossexualidad University Press, Nueva York, En: Lamas M comp. Lancaster RN: Subject honor and object shame: The construction of male homosexuality and stigma in Nicaragua.

Ethnology27 7 J Homosex, enfermedwd Link BG: Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. Am Sociol Rev, Lock J, Kleis B: Origins of homophobia in males.

Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defense 19900. Am J Psychother52 4 Lock J, Steiner H: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth risks for emotional, physical, and social problems: results from a community-based survey. Am Behav Sci33 5 Psychol Woman Quarter, Alcohol and drug 1990 among homosexual man and women: epidemiology and population characteristics.

Adictive Behav, En: Galanter ed. 1990 Press,Nueva York,

Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May See also: Societal attitudes toward homosexuality. Main article: Sexual orientation identity.

Main article: Sexual fluidity. See also: LGBT parenting. See also: Relationship counseling. October Main article: Gay affirmative psychotherapy.

See also: Ego-dystonic sexual orientation. World Health Organisation — Europe. Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 24 August The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved 1 September New York: Thomas Crowell. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.

London: Hogarth Press. The problem of Homosexuality in modern society. New York: Dutton. Retrieved 16 February Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. American Journal of Psychiatry. Homosexuality in History. If this be sexual heresy.. New York: Lyle Stuart Inc. Psychology of Sex. New York: Emerson Books. An analysis of the Kinsey reports on sexual behavior in the human male and female. The New York Times.

Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Journal of Homosexuality. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Oxford University Press. The Biology of Homosexuality. National Affirmation Annual Conference.

Portland, Oregon. Archived from the original on 4 July Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. American Psychiatric Press. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. August Journal of Personality Assessment. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy. Psychological Medicine.

American Journal of Public Health. New York: Simon and Schuster. Psychiatric disorders and disability in the female homosexual". The American Journal of Psychiatry. Journal of Adolescent Research.

Social Work. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Journal of Social Issues. Social Psychology Quarterly. University of California Press. Sociological Analysis.

The experience of integrating gay identity with evangelical Christian faith" Dissertation Abstracts International 58 09 , B. UMI No. Wall Street Journal. Journal of Sex Research.

James; Williams, Mark L. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. We expect that in all cultures the vast majority of individuals are sexually predisposed exclusively to the other sex i. Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer Cengage Learning. Retrieved 18 February Sexual orientation is a deep part of personal identity and is usually quite stable. Starting with their earliest erotic feelings, most people remember being attracted to either the opposite sex or the same sex.

Retrieved 22 June The notion that sexual orientation can change over time is known as sexual fluidity. Even if sexual fluidity exists for some women, it does not mean that the majority of women will change sexual orientations as they age — rather, sexuality is stable over time for the majority of people. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 3 February Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 28 August Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

January Developmental Psychology. Women's Health News. Journal of Marriage and Family. Gay and Lesbian Parents. Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 6 April E-mail: lortiz correo.

El cuestionario fue completado por los mismos sujetos. Bisexuals, lesbians, and homosexuals BLH face diverse forms of social exclusion because their sexual orientation SO is viewed negatively in most societies. Studies performed in industrialized countries have shown that prejudices faced by the BLH population may have a deleterious effect in their mental health because, in comparison with heterosexuals, they present a higher prevalence of consumption of alcohol and other drugs, suicide attempts, suicide ideation and mental disorders.

Meyer has pointed out in those studies that comparing BLH and heterosexual morbidity may only allow for the documentation of the existence of negative effects of heterosexism and homophobia on BLH health.

Although this means a substantial advance, it does not allow for the exploration of mechanisms through which oppression leads to higher morbidity in the BLH population.

It must be added that most of these studies are not guided by a conceptual framework which explains in detail the differences in mental morbidity between heterosexuals and BLH. Despite the fact that in Latin America increasingly more academics and politicians are worried by these problems, knowledge about health and disease conditions in BLH is still incipient. It was concluded that more studies are necessary about mental health in the BLH population in which bisexual and lesbian women are included, because they have been studied with less frequency than homosexual and bisexual males.

Considering the above, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of internalization of oppression on the risk of presenting mental health damages in the BLH population.

The oppression of BLH is caused by three dominant norms deriving from the gender system: a Heterosexism, which is the ideological system that denies, derides and stigmatizes any form of behavior, identity, relation or community different from the heterosexual ones. Culturally, homosexuality is equaled to the transgression of gender stereotypes TGS : homosexual males are thought of as feminine and lesbians as masculine, although in reality this does not always the case. That is why many BLH have suffered diverse forms of violence because in infancy and adolescence they were feminine males or masculine women.

Androcentrism explains why homosexuality is more punished in males than in females. BLH, just like heterosexuals, grow up and live in a society structured in terms of the dominant norms of the gender system.

This causes that BLH internalize the dominant values of the gender system. To understand how BLH incorporate oppression in their subjectivity, one may recover the concept of habitus which is defined as a system of categories of perception, thought and action.

Internalized homophobia occurs when BLH incorporate in their self-esteem the negative meanings, the prejudices and stereotypes accrued to homosexuality and TGS, which causes them to have neg ative attitude towards their own homosexuality, the homosexuality of others, towards their TGS and that of others. Due to the symbolic link between TGS and homosexuality, it is important to incorporate the negative attitude towards TGS in the definition of internalized homophobia. The perception of the stigma due to homosexuality refers to the expectations of BLH about possible attitudes and reactions that other persons may have due to their SO.

By hiding, BLH modify their physical appearance and their behavior with the goal to make invisible their homosexuality or the expressions considered TGS. An observational, cross-sectional and analytical study was performed. A part of the population was contacted through personal networks of the author and a list of e-mail addresses of a socialization group.

The questionnaire was completed by the subjects themselves. Through the questionnaire, the three forms of internalized oppression were evaluated internalized homophobia, perception of stigma and hiding and five risks to health perception of the health status, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

A fifth of the population presented risk of alcoholism. It was observed that the frequency of alcoholism in BL women surveyed was up to seven times higher than that reported by other women. Half of the surveyed individuals tried to avoid TGS in front of heterosexuals and five of ten did it only when they were amongst their BLH friends. Concerning the differences by sex in the forms of internalized oppression, in bisexual and homosexual males those related to TGS were more frequent negative attitude towards TGS, a shamed of it, tried to avoid TGS and only TGS when they were with BLH friends , while in bisexual and lesbian women the higher percentages were those related to SO scale of perception of stigma due to homosexuality, expectation of negative reaction of family towards BLH, afraid people knew their SO and avoid showing affection to their partner.

Likewise, among bisexual and homosexual males internalized homophobia was more frequent than in bisexual and lesbian women. The perception of the health status was not associated with any indicator of internalized homophobia.

BLH presenting high levels in the scale of internalized homophobia suffered guilt due to their SO or had negative attitudes towards TGS, showed higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders. The scale of internalized homophobia and the negative attitude towards TGS were also associated with alcoholism. Shame due to TGS increased their probability of presenting suicide ideation and mental disorders.

The stigma scale was not related to any of the damages studied. The expectation of negative reactions from their relatives, schoolmates or co-workers was associated with a higher risk of perception of bad or regular health status, suicide ideation and mental disorders. As the number of friends who knew the SO increased hiding indicator , the greater the probability was of presenting mental disorders, but less than that of presenting alcoholism.

The increase in the number of schoolmates or co-workers who knew the SO was related with a lower risk of alcoholism. Avoiding showing affection to their partner of the same sex was related with a higher risk or presenting alcoholism. The risks of suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders were higher in the persons that did all they could to hide their SO. BLH who avoided TGS had a higher probability of presenting suicide ideation, mental disorders and alcoholism.

The results of the study showed that BLH population have important health problems such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts and alcoholism in the case of the LB women. Further, although there are differences between homosexual and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females regarding the most frequent type of internalized oppression, the three forms of internalized oppression internalized homophobia, perception of the stigma due to homosexuality, and hiding were associated with a higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

These findings may be recovered to prevent health damages in the BLH population. Consultado el 18 de octubre de Consultado el 17 de febrero de Consultado el 5 de mayo de Universidad de Northampton.

Cole 21 de septiembre de Consultado el 6 de junio de Consultado el 16 de agosto de The Nerdist. Consultado el 6 de diciembre de El Observador. Consultado el 11 de julio de El Mercurio. Chile: EMOL. Consultado el 30 de junio de La Voz Libre. Reino Unido. ABC News. El Salvador Times. Consultado el 26 de septiembre de El Asombrario. Consultado el 5 de junio de Cadena SER. Consultado el 25 de mayo de Aldrich , Robert ; Wotherspoon , Garry Psychology Press.

Ediciones Trilce. Bruquetas de Castro , Fernando Hijos de Muley-Rubio. Claro , Nicole Chelsea House Publishers. Crimmins , Cathy Penguin Books. Charles , Nicholas C. Trafford Publishing. Enciclopedia Gay. Falconi , Francesco Loco por Madonna. La Reina del Pop. Babelcube Inc. Ashgate Publishing. Real , Michael R. SAGE Publishing.