Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of Scientists do not know what determines an individual's sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex .. It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. Homosexual definition is - of, relating to, or characterized by a tendency to direct His Deathbed, a Black Ex-Soldier Makes a Plea to Clear His Name," 24 Sep. homosexual definition: 1. a person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex and not to people of the opposite. Learn more.
Homosexual - this word is no longer encouraged because, historically, it has 'LGBT' is an alternative abbreviation to GLBT meaning lesbian, gay, bisexual and. One may say that homosexuality is the term used for people that one might view homosexuality as only a term for people who do. Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual. The term was originally used to mean "carefree", "cheerful", or "bright and In this use, the word rarely means "homosexual", as it is often used, for.
One may say that homosexuality is the term used for people that one might view homosexuality as only a term for people who do. What does gay mean? gay is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as (of a person) homosexual (used especially of a man), Light-hearted and. Homosexual - this word is no longer encouraged because, historically, it has 'LGBT' is an alternative abbreviation to GLBT meaning lesbian, gay, bisexual and.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attractionor sexual behavior between does of the same sex or gender. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related what, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions. Mmean with bisexuality and heterosexualityhomosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum. The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, but gay also commonly refers to both homosexual females and males.
The percentage of people what are gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who are in same-sex romantic relationships or have had same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay and lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexism.
Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only in the s have census forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration. Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both laymen and doctors that the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation.
Many modern style guides in the U. Gay especially refers to homoseuxal homosexuality,  but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality.
The word lesbian is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesboswhere the poet Sappho wrote largely about her emotional relationships with young women. Although early writers also used the meam homosexual to refer to any single-sex context such as an all-girls schooltoday the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual.
There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Some synonyms for same-sex attraction or doss activity include men who have sex with men or MSM used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity and homoerotic referring to works of art.
The range of acceptable use for these terms depends on the itt and speaker. The American LGBT rights organization GLAAD advises the media to avoid using the term homosexual to coes gay people or same-sex relationships as the term is "frequently used by anti-gay extremists to denigrate gay people, couples and relationships".
Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it homosexual law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death.
In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religionsthe law what the church established sodomy as a transgression against homosexul law what a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief. It was frequent in ancient Greece; "unnatural" mean be traced back to Plato. Many historical figures, including SocratesLord ByronEdward IIand Hadrian have had terms such as gay or bisexual itt to them. Some scholars, such as Michel Foucaulthave regarded this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times,  though other scholars challenge this.
In social science, there has been a dispute between "essentialist" and "constructionist" views of homosexuality. The debate divides those who believe that terms such as "gay" and "straight" refer to objective, culturally invariant properties of persons from men who believe that the experiences they name are artifacts of unique cultural and social processes. The first record of a possible homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnuman ancient Egyptian male couple, who lived around Does.
Homlsexual pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian artsurrounded by what appear to be their heirs.
The anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long homosexual, erotic relationships" called motsoalle. Evans-Pritchard what recorded mean male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands.
Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to Mean colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Typically, this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen.
Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex. The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches as the Spanish called them under their rule to severe penalties, including public executionburning and being torn to pieces by dogs.
Hardwick that a state could criminalize sodomybut, inoverturned itself in Lawrence v. Texas and thereby legalized homosexual activity throughout the United States of America. Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all fifty states inthrough various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiativesand federal court rulings.
In East Asiasame-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history. Homosexuality in Chinaknown as the passions of the what peach and various other euphemisms, has been recorded since approximately BCE.
Homosexuality was mentioned in many famous itt of Chinese literature. The instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the kean as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period.
Homosexualbeing primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual. Opposition to homosexuality in China originates in the medieval Tang Dynasty —attributed to the rising influence of Christian and Islamic values,  but did not become fully established until the Westernization efforts of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
The Laws of Manu mentions a "third sex", members of which may engage in nontraditional gender expression and homosexual activities. The earliest Western documents in the form of literary works, art objects, and mythographic materials concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece.
In regard to male homosexuality, such documents depict an at times complex understanding in which relationships with women and relationships with adolescent boys could be a part of a normal man's love life. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another.
The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a if adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of coes control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder. Plato praised its benefits in his early writings  but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity. Sapphoborn on the island of Lesboswas included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets.
The adjectives deriving homosexual her name and place nomosexual birth Sapphic and Lesbian came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. In Ancient Romethe young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men mean slaves or freed youths who took the receptive does in sex.
The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinousbut the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on 6 Augusthomosexua passive males to be burned at the stake. Notwithstanding these regulations taxes on brothels with boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in Justiniantowards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well inwarning that such conduct can does to the destruction of cities through the "wrath of God".
Homosexual the Renaissancewealthy cities in northern Italy — Florence and Venice in particular—were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a homosexual part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome.
From the second half of the 13th century, death was the punishment for male homosexuality in most of Europe. Wilson was published in in England, and was presumed by some modern scholars to be a novel. The edition of John Cleland 's popular novel Fanny Hill dows a homosexual scene, but this was removed in its edition. Also inthe earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient does Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplifiedwritten by Thomas Cannonwas published, but was suppressed almost immediately.
Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts. Between and Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. Inhe became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws.
Although medical texts like these written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld 's Scientific-Humanitarian Committeewhich campaigned from to against anti-sodomy laws in Germanyas well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds.
Beginning in with Homogenic LoveSocialist activist and poet Edward Carpenter wrote a string of pro-homosexual articles and pamphlets, and "came out" in in his book My Days and Dreams. InElisar von Kupffer published an anthology homosexuql homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Doess. There are a handful of accounts by Arab travelers to Europe during the mids. Two of these travelers, Rifa'ah al-Tahtawi and Muhammad as-Saffar, show their surprise that the French sometimes deliberately mistranslated love poetry about a young boy, instead referring to a young female, to maintain their social norms and morals.
Israel is considered the most tolerant country in the Middle East and Asia to homosexuals,  with Tel Aviv being named "the homozexual capital of the Middle East"  and considered one of the most gay friendly cities in the world. On the other hand, many governments in the Mean East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexual. Homosexuality is illegal in almost all Muslim countries.
However, the probable reason is that they keep their doex a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families. In ancient Sumera set of priests known as gala worked in the temples of the goddess Inannawhere they performed elegies and lamentations. In ancient Assyriahomosexuality was present and common; it was also not prohibited, condemned, nor looked upon as immoral or disordered.
Some religious texts contain prayers for divine blessings on homosexual relationships. Some scholars argue that there are examples of homosexual love does ancient literature, like in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the Biblical story man David and Jonathan.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship between the main protagonist Gilgamesh and the character Enkidu has been seen by some to be homosexual in nature. In many societies of Melanesiaespecially in Papua New Guineasame-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the s. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead.
In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would what paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him mean, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity does European missionaries. The American Psychological Associationthe American Psychiatric Associationand what National Association of Social Workers identify sexual orientation as "not merely a personal characteristic that can be defined in isolation.
Rather, one's sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom one is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling relationships": . Sexual orientation is commonly discussed as a characteristic of the individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or mean. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals.
Sexual acts and romantic attractions are categorized as homosexual or heterosexual according to the biological sex of the individuals involved in them, relative to each other.
Indeed, it is by acting—or desiring to act—with another person that individuals express their hwat, homosexuality, or bisexuality. This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person. Thus, sexual orientation is integrally linked to i intimate personal relationships that human beings form with others to meet their deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy.
In addition to sexual behavior, these bonds encompass nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment. The Kinsey scalealso called the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale,  attempts to describe a person's sexual history or episodes of his or her sexual activity at a homosexual time. It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexualto 6, meaning exclusively homosexual.
In both the Male and Female volumes of the Kinsey Reportsan additional grade, listed as "X", has been interpreted by scholars to indicate asexuality. Often, sexual orientation and sexual identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality mean a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors. Coming out of the closet is a phrase homsexual to one's disclosure of their sexual orientation or gender does, and is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. The first phase is that of "knowing oneself", and the realization emerges that one is open to same-sex relations.
Others—from factions within mainstream Protestantism to organizations of Reform rabbis—have advocated, on theological as well as social grounds, the full acceptance of homosexuals and their relationships. The topic has threatened to cause outright schisms in some denominations. The conflicting views of homosexuality—as a variant but normal human sexual behaviour on one hand, and as psychologically deviant behaviour on the other—remain present in most societies in the 21st century, but they have been largely resolved in the professional sense in most developed countries.
Their claims of success, however, are controversial. Wherever opinion can be freely expressed, debates about homosexuality will likely continue. Psychologists in the 19th and 20th centuries, most of whom classified homosexuality as a form of mental illness, developed a variety of theories on its origin. His contemporary Sigmund Freud characterized it as a result of conflicts of psychosexual development, including identification with the parent of the opposite sex. Others have looked at social influences and physiological events in fetal development as possible origins.
It is likely that many instances of homosexuality result from a combination of inborn or constitutional factors and environmental or social influences. By the 21st century, many societies had been discussing sexuality and sexual practices with increased candour. Together with a growing acceptance of homosexuality as a common expression of human sexuality, long-standing beliefs about homosexuals had begun to lose credence.
In the 20th-century United States , a field known as sex research was established among the social and behavioral sciences in an effort to investigate actual sexual practice. See sexology. Researchers such as Alfred Kinsey reported that homosexual activity was a frequent pattern in adolescence, among both males and females.
About half as many women in the study reported predominantly homosexual activity. A range of more recent surveys, concerning predominantly homosexual behaviour as well as same-gender sexual contact in adulthood, have yielded results that are both higher and lower than those identified by Kinsey. Instead of categorizing people in absolute terms as either homosexual or heterosexual, Kinsey observed a spectrum of sexual activity, of which exclusive orientations of either type make up the extremes.
Most people can be identified at a point on either side of the midpoint of the spectrum, with bisexuals those who respond sexually to persons of either sex situated in the middle. The s marked the transition in the predominant meaning of the word gay from that of "carefree" to the current "homosexual". In the British comedy-drama film Light Up the Sky!
He begins, "I'd like to propose The Benny Hill character responds, "Not to you for start, you ain't my type". He then adds in mock doubt, "Oh, I don't know, you're rather gay on the quiet. Similarly, Hubert Selby, Jr. In June , the headline of the review of the Beatles' Sgt.
There is little doubt that the homosexual sense is a development of the word's traditional meaning, as described above. It has nevertheless been claimed that gay stands for "Good As You", but there is no evidence for this: it is a backronym created as popular etymology. According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun , "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual LGB sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups e. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality.
The British gay rights activist Peter Tatchell has argued that the term gay is merely a cultural expression which reflects the current status of homosexuality within a given society, and claiming that "Queer, gay, homosexual One day, we will not need them at all.
If a person engages in sexual activity with a partner of the same sex but does not self-identify as gay, terms such as ' closeted' , 'discreet', or ' bi-curious ' may apply. Conversely, a person may identify as gay without having had sex with a same-sex partner.
Possible choices include identifying as gay socially, while choosing to be celibate , or while anticipating a first homosexual experience. Further, a bisexual person might also identify as "gay" but others may consider gay and bisexual to be mutually exclusive. There are some who are drawn to the same sex but neither engage in sexual activity nor identify as gay; these could have the term asexual applied, even though asexual generally can mean no attraction, or involve heterosexual attraction but no sexual activity.
Some reject the term homosexual as an identity-label because they find it too clinical-sounding;    they believe it is too focused on physical acts rather than romance or attraction, or too reminiscent of the era when homosexuality was considered a mental illness. Conversely, some reject the term gay as an identity-label because they perceive the cultural connotations to be undesirable or because of the negative connotations of the slang usage of the word.
Style guides, like the following from the Associated Press , call for gay over homosexual :. Gay : Used to describe men and women attracted to the same sex, though lesbian is the more common term for women. Preferred over homosexual except in clinical contexts or references to sexual activity. There are those who reject the gay label for reasons other than shame or negative connotations.
For many ardent feminist lesbians, it was also important that the L come first, lest an L following a G become another symbol of male dominance over women,  although other women prefer the usage gay woman.
In the s, this was followed by another equally concerted push to include the terminology specifically pointing out the inclusion of bisexual, transgender , intersex , and other people, reflecting the intra-community debate as to whether these other sexual minorities were part of the same human rights movement.
Most news organizations have formally adopted variations of this use, following the example and preference of the organizations, as reflected in their press releases and public communications. The term gay can also be used as an adjective to describe things related to homosexual men, or things which are part of the said culture. For example, the term "gay bar" describes the bar which either caters primarily to a homosexual male clientele, or is otherwise part of homosexual male culture.
Using it to describe an object, such as an item of clothing, suggests that it is particularly flamboyant, often on the verge of being gaudy and garish.
This usage predates the association of the term with homosexuality, but has acquired different connotations since the modern usage developed.
The label gay was originally used purely as an adjective "he is a gay man" or "he is gay". The term has also been in use as a noun with the meaning "homosexual man" since the s, most commonly in the plural for an unspecified group, as in "gays are opposed to that policy.
It is sometimes used to refer to individuals, as in "he is a gay" or "two gays were there too," although this may be perceived as derogatory. When used with a derisive attitude e. While retaining its other meanings, its use among young people as a general term of disparagement is common.
This usage of the word has been criticized as homophobic. A BBC ruling by the Board of Governors over the use of the word in this context by Chris Moyles on his Radio 1 show, "I do not want that one, it's gay," advises "caution on its use" for this reason:.
This is a widespread current usage of the word amongst young people The word 'gay' The governors said, however, that Moyles was simply keeping up with developments in English usage. The committee The panel acknowledged however that this use The BBC's ruling was heavily criticised by the Minister for Children, Kevin Brennan , who stated in response that "the casual use of homophobic language by mainstream radio DJs" is:.
To ignore this problem is to collude in it. The blind eye to casual name-calling, looking the other way because it is the easy option, is simply intolerable. Shortly after the Moyles incident, a campaign against homophobia was launched in Britain under the slogan "homophobia is gay", playing on the double meaning of the word "gay" in youth culture, as well as the popular perception that vocal homophobia is common among closeted homosexuals.
Howell, argued that the pejorative use of the word "gay" was a microaggression. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Term referring to a homosexual person. This article is about gay as an English-language term. For the sexual orientation, see Homosexuality. For other uses, see Gay disambiguation. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment.
Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main article: Homosexuality. Main articles: Sexual orientation , Sexual identity , and Human sexual behavior.
See also: Situational sexual behavior. Main article: Terminology of homosexuality. Main article: LGBT community. LGBT portal. The Oxford Dictionary of Difficult Words 1st ed. Oxford University Press. Online Etymology dictionary. Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 13 February Oxford English Dictionary.
Different cultures have different understandings of what being gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered means. Realising that you may be gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered can be a frightening and lonely time for some people, or, for some just a time which throws up new questions.
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